Symposia

BULLYING

Wednesday 24 August         13.00 – 14.30                    Room: Peer Gynt

CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF ONLINE AND OFFLINE VICTIMIZATION TRAJECTORIES: FIRST FINDINGS

Chair: Sindy Sumter, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Discussant: Francoise D. Alsaker, University of Bern, Switzerland

This international symposium will bring together the latest findings from the first longitudinal studies on cyberbullying that are currently conducted across different countries (e.g., Switzerland, Austria, and The Netherlands). To date, the majority of studies on cyberbullying and online victimization have been cross-sectional. However, to advance our understanding of this new form of peer abuse and improve prevention initiatives, longitudinal studies are indispensible. Aims: The focus of the symposium is on online victimization experiences during late childhood and adolescence. The longitudinal designs will advance our knowledge in three ways: 1) identification of distinct developmental trajectories of online victimization, 2) identification of longitudinal causes and consequences of online victimization, and 3) better understanding of the relationship between offline and online victimization. Outline: From research on traditional victimization it has become clear that it is crucial to acknowledge heterogeneity in victimization experiences. For this reason, the first paper identified distinct developmental trajectories in online and offline victimization from early to late adolescence. These trajectories were closely related and predicted life satisfaction (Paper 1 - Sumter). To shed more light on early predictors of online victimization during adolescence, the second paper investigated whether teacher reported levels of traditional bullying and victimization at age 5 predicted online victimization experiences at age 12 (Paper 2 - Perren). Finally, positive peer relations (e.g. popularity) have often been proved to be protective for offline victimization. The third paper investigated popularity (peer and self-assessment) as protective factors and offline and online victimization as risk factors for online victimization among early adolescents over a one year period (Paper 3 - Gradinger). All papers provide evidence for the link between online and offline victimization experiences, both in childhood (paper 2) and adolescence (paper 1, 2, and 3). The three papers together will provide a nuanced picture of offline and online victimization experiences and their development. Possible causes and consequences are presented and provide first knowledge for prevention. In short, this symposium underlines that it is not possible to fully understand peer victimization during childhood and adolescence without taking into account behavior online. A first reflection on these new insights in prevention and the developmental aspects of online victimization will be provided by our discussant. List of presenters: 1. Sindy Sumter (University of Amsterdam) , 2. Sonja Perren (University of Zurich), 3. Petra Gradinger (University of Vienna), and 4. Francoise Alsaker (Discussant, University of Bern).

S4.1
Development and effect of offline and online peer victimization during adolescence: a group based modelling approach
Sumter, S., Valkenburg, P., Baumgartner, S., Peter, J.

S4.2
Does peer victimization in kindergarten predict online- and offline-victimization in early adolescence?
Perren, S., Forrester-Knauss, C., Alsaker, F.D.

S4.3
Predictive Associations between Popularity and Cyber Victimization in Early Adolescence
Gradinger, P., Strohmeier, D., Schiller, E., Stefanek, E., Spiel, C.



Wednesday 24 August         16.15 – 17.45                    Room: Peer Gynt

LARGE-SCALE IMPLEMENTATION OF SCHOOL-BASED ANTI-BULLYING PROGRAMS: STRATEGIES AND SOME CHALLENGES

Chair: Dan Olweus, UniHealth/University of Bergen, Norway
Discussant: Peter Smith, Goldsmith College London, United Kingdom

In the past 10 years, several school-based anti-bullying programs have been implemented on a large-scale basis. Several of these programs have their origin in the Nordic countries. Three of the key persons involved in these Nordic initiatives – Christina Salmivalli (KIVA project, Finland, 2008 - ), Erling Roland (Zero, Norway, 2003- ), and Dan Olweus (Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, OBPP, Norway, 2001- ) - will get together in this symposium to describe their strategies and models of implementation, related research and possible challenges. Very little research has been conducted on issues of implementation in the field of anti-bullying work and the current symposium will try to start filling this gap in the research literature. Highlighted issues will include description of strategies, fidelity of implementation, dose-response relationships, training of program providers, use of the program in different contexts and age groups/populations, and participant responsiveness. Much of the research to be reported on in the symposium is in progress at the time of the symposium submission but will have reached a more advanced stage at the time of abstract delivery (May). A very experienced bullying researcher, Peter Smith, will serve as a discussant of the symposium.

S6.1
Implementation fidelity of the KiVa Antibullying Program during randomized controlled trial and broad dissemination
Salmivalli, C., Haataja, A., Poskiparta, E.

S6.2
Effect of the anti-bullying program Zero in primary and secondary schools and implementation strategy
Roland, E.

S6.3
The Olweus Bullying Prevention Program (OBPP): Factors Affecting Implementation and Relative Effectiveness of Various Classroom Components
Olweus, D.



Thuesday 25 August         08.30–10.00                    Room: Peer Gynt

CYBERBULLYING: DEFINITION AND MEASUREMENT ACROSS EUROPE

Chair: Ersilia Menesini, University of Florence, Italy & Rosario Ortega, University of Cordoba, Spain
Discussant: Peter K. Smith, Goldsmith College London, United Kingdom

With the increase and diffusion of modern technologies a new form of aggression and bullying has emerged, defined as Cyberbullying, Electronic bullying or Internet bullying. This term refers to intentional and repeated assaults against another person by electronic means. This symposium will deepen the issues of its definition and measurement among adolescents living in different European countries. Early studies of cyberbullying used the definition of traditional bullying, mostly developed in a top-down approach and based on three criteria: intentional harm, repetition over time and power imbalance between victim and perpetrator. Recently, in the cyber domain, this definition has become subject of controversy among experts and researchers since the three criteria can have a different meaning in the virtual as compared to the face-to-face context. Besides, new criteria have been proposed such as anonymity and publicity, which are specific of the virtual domain (e.g. Menesini & Nocentini, 2009; Slonje & Smith, 2008). The aims of this symposium is to analyse and compare cross-culturally the perception and the definition of cyberbullying among adolescents of different European countries. All the presentations come from a network of European researchers who have worked on a joint project within the COST action. Specifically Italian and Spanish teams will analyse adolescents’ definition of cyberbullying making use of a set of scenarios designed to systematically investigate the role of different criteria (intentionality, repetition, imbalance of power , anonymity and publicity) for cyberbullying perception. German and Swedish teams will make use of a more qualitative approach based on focus groups where the role of the same criteria have been discussed with students. The last contribution coming from Austria will address the issue of cyberbullying measurement comparing global vs multiple-items approach. Overall the presentations will delineate a complex approach to the problem where single vs multiple criteria, types of behavior, different perspectives and cultural factors will be integrated and discussed. List of presenters: 1) Palladino, Nocentini and Menesini 2) Ortega and Calamaestra; 3) Schultze-Krumbholz, Höher, Fiebig & Scheithauer 4) Frisén and Berne; 5) Gradinger, Strohmeier and Spiel Discussant is Prof. Peter K. Smith, one of the main expert in the area.

S8.1
Definition of cyberbullying among Italian adolescents: to what extent do criteria and type of behavior matter? An investigation through COST scenarios
Palladino, B., Nocentini, A., Menesini, E.

S8.2
Measuring perceptions of Spanish adolescents about the concept of cyberbullying through COST scenarios: a preliminary analysis.
Ortega, R., Calmaestra, J.

S8.3
Cyberbullying – How do German students define this behaviour?
Schultze-Krumbholz, A., Höher, J., Fiebig, J., Scheithauer, H.

S8.4
Adolescents' view on how different criteria define cyberbullying
Berne, S., Frisén, A.

S8.5
Definition and Measurement of Cyberbullying
Gradinger, P., Strohmeier, D., Spiel, C.



Thuesday 25 August         13.00–14.30                    Room: Peer Gynt

UNDERSTANDING THE MULTIPLE ROLES TAKEN IN BULLYING SITUATIONS: INNOVATIVE APPROACHES AND ANALYSES

Chair: Virpi Pöyhönen, University of Turku, Finland
Discussant: Dan Olweus, UniHealth/University of Bergen, Norway

Interpersonal violence entails large psychological costs to victims and economic costs to society. Together, the three papers in this symposium focus on multiple roles (bullies, bully-victims, non-involved, defenders) students take in bullying situations. Thus, this symposium extends the traditional focus on individual bullies by takings a broader multifaceted group perspective. The papers will significantly advance our understanding of different participant roles by a) describing ontogenetic and individual level change, and b) identifying individual and classroom-level predictors of change in engagement in the different roles. The papers employ both cross-sectional and longitudinal data from two different countries (Italy and Finland), cover a wide age-range of students (high school aged students have been relatively neglected in the literature), use large sample sizes, and employ advanced statistical methods (e.g., multilevel and growth curve modelling) that assist in the evaluation of how different processes operate at individual vs. classroom levels. The first paper focuses on age-related changes in prevalence and adjustment correlates (e.g., anxiety, depression) of bully-victims, bullies, victims, and non-involved students with 21,837 Finnish students aged between 7 and 16 years. The second paper focuses on the role of individual- and classroom-level factors in the development of bullying across adolescence (14.5 to 16.5 years) with a sample of 789 Italian high school students (42% females). A multilevel growth curve model is used to disentangle the variability of the growth factors in bullying at the individual- vs. classroom-level. Different individual- (e.g., aggression, negative competition style, and parental monitoring) and classroom-level (e.g., aggregated pro-bullying roles and aggression) variables are used to predict changes in bullying. The last paper focuses on defending victimized classmates with a Finnish sample of 15,397 3rd to 9th graders (9 to 16 years). A multilevel model is used to investigate individual- (e.g., affective empathy, self-efficacy, perceived popularity) and classroom-level (e.g., classroom climate, teachers attitudes towards bullying, social status of bullies in the classroom) factors that either enable or inhibit defending behavior. Findings will be summarized and commented by the discussant followed by general discussion with the audience.

S10.1
Different forms of bullying and victimization: Bully-victims versus bullies and victims
Yang, A., Salmivalli, C.

S10.2
The role of individual and classroom factors in the development of bullying across adolescence: a multilevel longitudinal approach
Nocentini, A., Menesini, E., Salmivalli, C.

S10.3
Defending the Victimized Classmates: What Explains Variation Between Individuals and Between Classrooms?
Pöyhönen, V., Juvonen, J., Salmivalli, C.



Thuesday 25 August         16.15 – 17.45                    Room: Peer Gynt

TEACHER RESPONSES TO INCIDENTS OF SCHOOL BULLYING IN SEVERAL COUNTRIES: FINDINGS AND METHODS OF ASSESSMENT

Chair: Sheri Bauman, University of Arizona, USA
Discussant: Yuichi Toda, Osaka Unversity of Education, Japan

It is well established that school bullying is prevalent around the world and leads to negative outcomes among involved students, including bystanders. Students continue to be victimized despite extensive prevention and intervention efforts. Insufficient attention has been paid to a critical component of the social ecology in which bullying occurs: teacher responses (Kallestad & Olweus, 2003; Newman, Frey & Jones, 2010; Yoon & Barton, 2008). i) The purpose of this symposium is to present findings from four studies in which teacher responses to school bullying were investigated. All studies used vignettes, but those vignettes were presented using different strategies: a questionnaire with a written vignette, a questionnaire with streaming video vignettes, and a questionnaire using cartoon vignettes. Each method will be shown to participants The latter two methods are new and innovative. The discussant will comment on the findings and the methods used. ii)Participants will get an overview of recent research on teacher responses to school bullying in several countries (Brazil, United States, and Austria/Germany).Participants will be introduced to two innovative methods – online surveys with streaming video, and surveys using cartoons. Participants will be able to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each method. Participants will be able to discuss the use of vignettes to assess teacher behaviour and attitudes. iii) The session will begin with an introduction to the topic and a brief review of extant literature on teacher responses to school bullying, and to the uses of vignettes. Then three papers will be presented, the first presenting findings using the Handling Bullying Questionnaire (Rigby & Bauman, 2006) in the U.S. and Australia, the second presenting data using the same measure with teachers in Germany/Austria; the third using streaming video in online surveys to collect data on US teachers, and finally results of a study using cartoons tin a survey of Brazilian educators. The discussant will comment on the findings and the methods from the perspective of a Japanese researcher with a research interest in school bullying.

S14.1
Findings from the Handling Bullying Questionnaire with teachers in the USA and Australia
Bauman, S., Rigby, K.

S14.2
What teachers do witnessing bullying episodes in pupils: An investigation using the handling Bullying Questionnaire in German speaking countries
Sproeber, N., Strohmeier, D., Burger, C., Bauman, S., Rigby, K.

S14.3
Teacher Interventions in School Bullying: An Investigation of Teacher and Student Characteristics Using Streaming Video Vignettes
Yoon, J.

S14.4
Peer victimization in Brazilian schools: what are teachers doing to address it?
Cunha, J.M.D., Bauman, S., Weber, L.N.D.



Friday 26 August         08.30 – 10.00                    Room: Peer Gynt

NEW CONTEXTS OF VULNERABILITY AND PROTECTION IN SCHOOL BULLYING: THE INDIVIDUAL, TECHNOLOGY AND INTERVENTION

Chair: Kevin van der Meulen, Autonomous University of Madrid, Spain
Discussant: Yuichi Toda, Osaka University of Education, Japan

In this symposium, our purpose is to present findings of practical use for educational policy-makers, teachers, parents and researchers on current relevant aspects of peer victimization in schools (e.g. cyber bullying), using essential research methods (e.g. use of large samples, cross-national design, evaluation of implemented programs), pointing at new scenarios of vulnerability or protection less studied up to now as individual (e.g. Special Educational Needs -SEN-, or contextual variables (e.g. technological devices for communication). On the one hand, we will show data on bullying among students with SEN and cyber-bullying (Aim 1); on the other hand, attention will be given to the protection of the well-being of students when experiencing these negative peer experiences in the school atmosphere (Aim 2). In all four papers new empirical results on unique aspects of peer bullying will be given, which complement each other, and which will be used vice versa to discuss more thoroughly these findings. In the first presentation, Paul Naylor will answer questions with regard to the risk of students with SEN being victimized, including the relations with type of SEN, age, gender, parental socio-economic position and school drop-out, based on data of 15.000 students in the UK. In the second paper, Cristina del Barrio will present data on the incidence of cyber-bullying, with a representative sample (n= 3000) of secondary education of all regions of Spain. The third paper will describe the first year outcomes of a two-year group randomised control intervention trial – called the Cyber Friendly Schools project (CFSP) - conducted in Australia, presented by Donna Cross. In the fourth presentation, Kevin van der Meulen will present and discuss the cross national comparative impact of the peer support systems, which involve pupils being selected and trained to help peers who are the victims of any type of (cyber-) bullying. Finally, discussant Yuichi Toda will reflect on the outcomes of the four studies and the connections between them and the contributions to the study of peer relationships and school policies.

S16.1
Prevalence of bullying in secondary school by SEN type: Secondary analysis of combined NPD and LSYPE data files
Naylor, P., Emerson, E., Dawson, J., Tantam, D., Lara, L.

S16.2
Cyberbullying among Spanish secondary school students: data from a preliminary national survey
del Barrio, C., de Dios, M.J., Montero, I., Martín, E., Ochaíta, E., Espinosa, E., Gutiérrez, Barrios, A.

S16.3
An Anti-Bullying Intervention In Schools: Cross-National Comparative Evaluation of the PEPE project In England & Spain
van der Meulen, K., Naylor, P., del Barrio, C.



Saturday 27 August         08.30 – 10.00                    Room: Peer Gynt

KIVA ANTI-BULLYING PROGRAM: PRACTICAL VIEWPOINTS ON IMPLEMENTATION AND EFFECTIVENESS, AND AN INNOVATIVE PERSPECTIVE FROM SOCIAL NETWORK ANALYSIS

Chairs: Miia Sainio, University of Turku, Finland & Claire F. Garandeau, University of Turku, Finland

Reducing bullying in schools is a highly challenging task. Many programs have been developed and tested in various countries, but evidence of their effectiveness has been rather limited. Clearly, further knowledge on what makes a program work is needed. The proposed symposium brings together researchers from Finland, France and the Netherlands focusing on aspects of a Finnish nationwide anti-bullying program (KiVa) that are rarely investigated in bullying intervention research. The first two papers consider the implementation of KiVa program components (universal and indicated actions). The first study investigates the quality of the program implementation over one school year by analyzing teachers’ inclusion of anti-bullying elements into curriculum activities. Using multilevel modeling, the authors examined the extent to which differences in the quality of implementation could be attributed to schools versus teachers. The second study addresses the important question of how well victims were recognized by the KiVa school personnel and identifies factors that may influence this recognition. In the next two papers, researchers focus on the comparison between two strategies school personnel adopted for dealing with bullies: What works better, a “confronting” approach where the bully is openly told that his behaviour will not be tolerated or a “No-Blame/Shared Concern” (NB/SC) approach where the adult invites the bully to help by sharing his concern about the victim? The first study explores moderators of the effectiveness of each method at making the bullying stop, such as the duration of bullying, the type of aggression, students’ age and the number of bullies involved. The other study considers how bullies experienced these discussions and their motivation to change their behaviors as a function of the strategy used. The last paper introduces an extension of the KiVa program: How to utilize social network analysis to support program implementation? In a pilot test of KiVa in the Netherlands, teachers were provided with detailed feedback about the social structure of the classroom, which gave them more insight into the social processes taking place among their students and helped them gain better knowledge of hidden forms of bullying and assistants of bullies. This symposium gives a comprehensive overview of the KiVa program and emphasizes the practical aspects of its implementation. The five papers provide information that is useful not only for an understanding of bullying mechanisms, but also for the development of future anti-bullying intervention programs.

S30.1
Implementation process of the KiVa Antibullying Program During One School Year in Finnish Primary Schools
Haataja, A., Salmivalli. C.

S30.2
Recognition of Victims in Finnish KiVa Schools
Sainio, M., Turtonen, M., Poskiparta, E., Salmivalli, C.

S30.3
Dealing with Bullies at School: Which Approach for Which Situations?
Garandeau, C.F., Little, T.D., Kärnä, A., Poskiparta, E., Salmivalli, C.

S30.4
Subjective Experiences of Bullies Involved in Discussions Using Either a Confronting or a Non-Confronting Approach
Vartio, A., Salmivalli, C.

S30.5
Signaling Bullying Using Social Network Information: The KiVa+ Antibullying Program in the Netherlands
Huitsing, G., Veenstra, R., Salmivalli, C.


COGNITIVE AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

Wednesday 24 August         08.30 – 10.00                    Room: Klokkeklang

CULTURAL OBJECTS AND SEMIOTIC SYSTEMS IN EARLY DEVELOPMENT

Chair: Cintia Rodríguez, Autonomous University of Madrid, Spain

1) This symposium has two main objectives. First, objects are seen as cultural entities defined by their uses. They are included in normative practices. In early cognitive development they are part of communication, not just an “external context”. Second, infant/child development is analysed as development of semiotic systems. 2) The aim of this symposium is to stress the complexity of objects as products of consensus. Linked to this, we will consider different semiotic systems involved in early development going from uses of objects in communicative situations until the uses of images as metaphors. This session should stress the cultural complexity of pre-linguistic signs where objects are included. 3) The session proposes a “pragmatic twist” concerning objects (escaping from mainstream psychology view of objects as the evident “physical world”) and highlights the status of semiotic systems in early development. Alan Costall, from a Gibsonian perspective, underlies the complexity of objects –the canonical meanings of things- and their cultural affordances; Christiane Moro the semiotic complexity involved in joint attention situations where objects are seriously considered; Karina Cárdenas, Cintia Rodríguez and Pedro Palacios, focus on how important conventional uses of objects are in order to understand first symbolic productions with typical and atypical developing children; Noelia Sosa and Ana Moreno’s focal point is ostensive gestures and include a proto-interrogative function in intentional prelinguistic communication; Adriana de la Rosa shows how children as young as three years old can read metaphoric images. 4) List of presenters: 1. Alan Costall – Portsmouth University (UK) 2. Christiane Moro – Université de Lausanne (CH) 3. Karina Cárdenas, Cintia Rodríguez – Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (Spain) & Pedro Palacios – Universidad Autónoma de Aguascalientes (México) 4. Noelia Sosa & Ana Moreno – Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (Spain) 5. Adriana de la Rosa – Universidad Autónoma de Occidente (Colombia).

S1.1
Representational and canonical affordances revisited
Costall, A.

S1.2
The role of the object in the development of joint attention and the access to others’ intentions in typically developing children
Moro, C.

S1.3
Early Communicative Mediators of the Symbolic Uses of Object in the Down syndrome: A case study
Cárdenas, K., Rodríguez, C., Palacios, P.

S1.4
Proto-interrogative gestures and the pragmatic of objects
Sosa, N., Moreno, A.

S1.5
The comprehension of visual metaphor in children
de la Rosa, A.



Thuesday 25 August         13.00 – 14.30                    Room: Klokkeklang

WORKING MEMORY AND EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONING: EXPLORING INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

Chair: Laura Visu-Petra, Babes-Bolyai University, Romania & Kerry Lee, National Institute of Education, Singapore
Discussant: Charlie Lewis, United Kingdom

The symposium explores key-issues related to working memory (WM) development, placed in the broader context of individual differences in executive functioning and academic achievement. It aims to tackle several problems at all stages of the research enterprise: conceptualization, assessment, analysis of causal relationships, examination of boundary conditions, and the design of ameliorative protocols. The symposium will contain five papers from four countries. Van der Ven (Netherlands) will present an innovative study in which she investigated whether the well-documented variability in arithmetic strategy development is related to WM capacity and performance accuracy. Using a longitudinal microgenetic approach situated within Siegler's “overlapping waves” theory, strategy selection and accuracy were found to be strongly interrelated, and linked to WM development. Ertubey and her colleagues (UK) focus on a more fundamental issue related to the assessment of WM and executive functioning. They administered the computerized version of tasks from the CANTAB neuropsychological battery, along with their paper-and-pencil version, and validated them against measures of academic performance in children with/without special education needs. Their study revealed an interesting selective pattern of correlations among the two test versions. Visu-Petra and colleagues (Romania and UK) will present research that extends basic findings on WM in relation to executive functioning and academic achievement by focusing on how their interrelationships are shaped by individual differences in trait anxiety and by the degree of executive demands incurred by different tasks. St. Clair-Thompson (UK) will report findings from an intervention study in which children with/without special education needs are administered an intervention protocol targeting mnemonic strategy improvement. The intervention demonstrated a provocative set of findings in which WM and mental arithmetic were improved, but not performances on standardized tests of academic achievement. Lee and his colleagues (Singapore) will present findings from a series of longitudinal studies that will relate to several elements from the previous presenters. Their studies begin with an initial extension of basic findings on the relationship between executive functioning and mathematical achievement. From early mathematical achievement to complex algebraic problems, they showed that abilities to update (but less so, abilities to inhibit or task switch) were a key predictor of achievement. Finally, the discussant (Charlie Lewis, UK) will integrate these papers, focusing on various analytic approaches which allow us to model the developmental trajectories of these abilities across early school years.

S11.1
The development of mathematical strategies and relations with working memory
van der Ven, S., Boom, J., Kroesbergen, E.H., Leseman, P.P.M.

S11.2
Assessment of the validity of a Computerised Assessment Technique (CAT) compared with equivalent Paper and Pencil tests of Executive Functions in 7-9 yr old children.
Ertubey, C., Roberts, P., Robertson, I., Teoh, K., Cavendish, P., Robertson, I.

S11.3
Individual differences in trait anxiety and executive functioning in young children
Visu-Petra, L., Cheie, L., Benga, O., Alloway, T.P.

S11.4
Can working memory training improve children’s learning and attainment?
St Clair-Thompson, H.

S11.5
Does executive functioning predict mathematical achievement?
Lee, K.



Friday 26 August         08.30 – 10.00                    Room: Klokkeklang

MEMORY IN INFANCY AND CHILDHOOD: NEW FINDINGS FROM EXPERIMENTAL, LONGITUDINAL AND ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL DEFERRED IMITATION STUDIES

Chair: Thorsten Kolling, Goethe-University Frankfurt/Main, Germany
Discussant: Monika Knopf, Goethe-University Frankfurt/Main, Germany

Research on the development of event memory revealed that children encode the relevant features of ongoing actions, they re-enact the event components selectively. There are at least two competing interpretations of these results. On the one hand it can be that children encode only the goal-relevant components of events. On the other hand, it is possible that children encode specifics of the original situation, though just because of the imitative learning process, they do not use them during re-enactment - in this case the selection processes happen during retrieval. With the method of deferred imitation we can rephrase the question, whether the memories of young children are flexible enough to adapt their retrieval process to the characteristics of the situation. We presented 24-month-old infants (n=20) with a four-step event with two ‘irrelevant’ components open to imitation (the relevance of the steps was either opaque or semi-opaque) and varied whether the steps were relevant during encoding and irrelevant in retrieval phase or vice versa. According to our results, children follow their original use of the semi-opaque tool irrespectively of the contextual cues in the retrieval phase, however from re-enactment they leave out the fully opaque component more frequently in the condition, where the original phase was the demonstration of a relevant tool use. In sum, two-year-old children stick to their original strategy, they do not adjust their reactions to the situational demands. They selectively imitate the necessary components, but they do not retrieve the emergently efficient specifics of the original event.

S17.1
Flexibility of early memories: Deferred imitation in two situations with change of contextual relevance
Király, I., Kampis, D., Krekó, K., Topál, J.

S17.2
Episodic memory development: Self-moderated stabilities of deferred imitation performance through the second year
Kolling, T., Goertz, C., Knopf, M.

S17.3
Further exploration into the infant’s mind: Early memory, individual differences and electrophysiological correlates
Heimann, M., Nordqvist, E., Tjus, T.


INFANTS AND PSYCHOBIOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT

Friday 26 August         16.15 – 17.45                    Room: Småtroll

BABYTALK: HOW TO COMMUNICATE WITH PERSONS THAT "KNOW NOTHING"?

Chair: Kjell Morten Stormark, UniHealth, Norway

We can never move with grace and purpose (as a newborn does) if we do not have an inner rhythm and values of effort in a body-centered behaviour space, and we can never move in reflective sympathy with the expressive actions of another person (as a newborn does) without this self-awareness. Moreover, even a newborn can demonstrate the rudiments of two talents necessary for learning cultural meanings: -- an imagination for a project of acting through an ordered sequence of moves (a 'narrative'); and a curiosity about novel ways of acting that may be negotiated in reciprocal imitative play with another person. All this suggests that the infant is born with motives and emotions for actions that sustain human intersubjctivity. Trevarthen gives evidence for this “communicative musicality” and advocate a theory of ‘shared experience’ as the foundation for learning cultural rituals, practices and language. According to this theory, we are born to generate shifting states of awareness, to show them to other persons, and to provoke interest and affectionate responses from them. Bråten present evidence of infant and toddlers’ capability for altercentric participation. The very reverse of the egocentricity attributed in much of the previous century as a point of departure for child development. Such altercentric participation entailing unwitting resonance with the other’s movements is most likely supported by a mirror neurons system - not in the sense of giving rise to reflective understanding of what the other is doing, but by affording neurosocial support of virtual participation in the companion’s movements in felt immediacy. Elefant will discuss communicative musicality within different therapeutic dialogues with children who have experienced various types of early interactions. The presentation will be accompanied by video and audio examples and will include work with adopted children, Autistic Spectrum Disorder and Rett Syndrome. Nagy will present evidence for how newborns use their tongue and hand to imitate, using a “Still Face paradigm”. She shows how even premature newborns are capable of communicating by reciprocal imitation. Stormark will present findings from experiments using the “Double Video” paradigm, demonstrating that 2-3 months olds are capable of distinguishing between sequences of contingent live interaction and sequences where the interaction is experimentally pertubated, even though the sensory input across the sequences are identical.

S26.1
Communicating with the rhythm of movement in the mind: New evidence from infancy
Trevarthen, C., Stormark, K.M., Elefant, C., Bråten, Nagy, E.

S26.2
Reciprocity and Mirror Resonance in Babies sharing their Food
Bråten, S., Stormark, K.M., Trevarthen, C., Elefant, C., Nagy, E.

S26.3
Therapeutic dialogues. Nurturing Musicality of Communication in Young Children
Elefant, C., Stormark, K.M., Trevarthen, C., Bråten, S., Nagy, E.

S26.4
Unknown title
Nagy, E.

S26.5
Double video studies of face-to-face interaction between young infants and their mothers. Evidence for an innate capacity for social contingency
Stormark, K.M.


FAMILY RELATIONS

Friday 26 August         08.30 – 10.00                    Room: Gjendine

PREDICTORS, CONSEQUENCES, AND DEVELOPMENTAL TRAJECTORIES OF PARENTS´MENTAL HEALTH OVER THE CHILD REARING YEARS

Chair: Kristin Brun Gustavson, Norwegian Institute of Publich Health

Parents’ functioning is important for their offsprings’ development. Knowledge about the parents’ own development over the child rearing years is therefore needed to inform intervention strategies for troubled families. The aims of the symposium are to extend knowledge about how psychological, relational, and child-related factors in early child rearing years are associated with relationship problems and parents’ mental health over a 15-year time span. Furthermore, the aims are to extend knowledge about how depressive symptoms affect mother-infant interactions and about stability and change in such symptoms over the child rearing years. We believe that the long time span (15 years) and the broad scope of variables (psychological, relational, and child-related) from one research group combined with an observational study from another group will make this symposium innovative. Furthermore, we hope that this session will achieve a greater understanding of the predictors and consequences of psychological and relational factors in families and thus be able to inform preventive interventions. The first, second, and fourth presentations will be based on a questionnaire study of 921 families followed from the children were 1.8 months to 18 years of age. The third presentations will be based on an observational study of 53 mothers’ interaction with their infants. First Maren Helland will present findings on social, psychological and child-related predictors of divorce during the child rearing period. Kristin Brun Gustavson will then present a study on how relationship problems in early child rearing years predict parents’ positive mental health 15 years later and how this association is mediated and moderated by divorce. Thirdly, Schale Azak will present findings on how mothers’ depressive symptoms affect interaction with their infants, and then Anni Skipstein will present a study on stability and change in such symptoms from children are 18 months to 14.5 years of age.

S18.1
Predictors from the early child rearing years on risk of relationship dissolution: A 15 year prospective study of mothers of infants
Helland, M., von Soest, T., Gustavson, K.B., Røysamb, E., Mathiesen, K.S.

S18.2
Mechanisms involved in the long-term associations between relationship problems, divorce, and life satisfaction.
Gustavson, K.B., Røysamb, E., von Soest, T., Helland, M., Mathiesen, K.S.

S18.3
“Maternal depression - the thief of sensitive and contingent maternal behavior.”
Azak, S.

S18.4
Trajectories of maternal symptoms of anxiety and depression.  A 13-year longitudinal study of a population-based sample.
Skipstein, A., Janson, H., Stoolmiller, M., Mathiesen, K.S.



Friday 26 August         13.00 – 14.30                    Room: Gjendine

PREDICTORS, CONSEQUENCES, AND DEVELOPMENTAL TRAJECTORIES OF PARENTS´MENTAL HEALTH OVER THE CHILD REARING YEARS

Chairs: Janne Vanhalst, Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium & Luc Goossens, Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium
Discussant: Palmar Qualter, University of Central Lanchashire, United Kingdom

Loneliness and related constructs such as aloneness and negative peer experiences have repeatedly been shown to be associated with a broad range of maladaptive psychological functioning throughout the life span. However, little is known about how these different constructs are related to one another. In addition, different types of loneliness (e.g., social and emotional loneliness) exists, but it remains unclear whether these different types of loneliness relate to different aspects of maladaptive psychological functioning. In the present symposium, we aim to clarify the construct of loneliness, using different methods (i.e., self-report questionnaires and peer nominations) with participants varying in age (i.e., children, mid-adolescents, and late adolescents) from different samples (i.e., community and clinical samples) that originate from three European countries (i.e., Belgium, the Czech Republic, and Denmark). Specifically, the first two presentations in the present symposium address the question how loneliness, aloneness, and negative peer experiences relate to one another. The third and the fourth presentation aim to understand how different types of loneliness relate to different contexts and psychopathology. The first study investigated whether one’s attitudes towards being alone are related differently to loneliness and several other indicators of adjustment in two independent samples of Belgian adolescents, using cluster analysis. The second study, also sampling Belgian adolescents, investigated how four different types of negative peer experiences (i.e., a lack of peer acceptance, a lack of reciprocal friendships, victimization, and low quality of one’s best friendship) are related to the experience of loneliness within and across time. The third study investigated whether Czech children in foster and institutional care differed in social and emotional loneliness from each other, and from children in biological families. The last study investigated whether peer-related, family-related, and romantic loneliness were differently associated with several indicators of psychopathology in a sample of Danish late adolescents. Our discussant from the United Kingdom will tie the various themes in the different presentations together, provide new insights, and stress the importance of distinguishing between different types of loneliness, aloneness, and peer relationships in childhood and adolescence.

S22.1
Attitudes Towards Solitude During Adolescence: A Person-Centered Approach
Teppers, E., Luyckx, K., Vanhalst, J., Klimstra, T., Goossens, L.

S22.2
Loneliness and Diverse Negative Peer Experiences in Adolescence: Associations Within and Across Time
Vanhalst, J., Luyckx, K., Giletta, M., Goossens, L.

S22.3
Social and Emotional Loneliness in Children in Foster and Institutional Care comparing to Children Biological Families
Ptacek, R., Kuzelova, H., Celedova, L., Cevela, R.

S22.4
Different Sources of Loneliness are Associated with Different Forms of Psychopathology in Adolescence
Lasgaard, M., Goossens, L., Bramsen, R.H., Trillingsgaard, T., Elklit, A.


PSYCHOPATHOLOGY AND INTERVENTIONS

Wednesday 24 August         08.30 – 10.00                    Room: Småtroll

TOWARDS A DIMENSIONAL APPROACH IN THE UNDERSTANDING OF CHILDREN’S MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS. RESULTS FROM THE BERGEN CHILD STUDY

Chair: Astri J. Lundervold, University of Bergen, Norway
Discussant: Kjell Morten Stormark, UniHealth, Norway

The Bergen Child study (BCS) is a population-based, longitudinal, case-control study of mental health in children and youth. Since 2002, we have followed a target population of around 10000 children from early elementary to high school age. The four waves of data collection comprise both screening and diagnostic information for the whole spectrum of mental health problems that children and youth encounter. This enables us to investigate a range of symptom dimensions, their overlap and development, as well as to compare the importance of different instruments in identifying and predicting developmental pathways. In their presentations Lundervold and Stormark will address the topic of continuity and discontinuity of mental health problems in children. Remission is found in a relatively large proportion among children who initially were reported to have symptoms, but there is also a relatively high proportion of children, particularly girls, that later develop symptoms of particular emotional problems. The implications for early identification and prevention of mental health problems will be discussed. Gillberg will demonstrate that co-existing of disorders and sharing of symptoms is the rule rather than the exception in child psychiatry and developmental medicine. He will argue for a non-categorical approach to children who deviate from normal development, and that an early categorizing into diagnostic groups may lead to a delay in recognizing that the child has more than one problem. Finally, Posserud and von Plessen will use results from the Bergen Child study to illustrate the dimensionality of symptoms within diagnostic categories, and how the identification of problems are dependent on the selection of assessment methods and cut-off values.

S2.1
The Bergen Child Study
Lundervold, A.J., Stormark, K. .

S2.2
ESSENCE in child psychiatry and developmental medicine.
Gillberg, C.

S2.3
Black or White? Or Grey? The categorical diagnosis versus the dimensional symptom.
Posserud, M.



Thursday 25 August         13:00 – 14.30                    Room: Salong Nina

CHILDREN’S ADAPTATION AND INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS IN POST TRAUMATIC CONTEXTS

Chair: Brit Oppedal, Norwegian Institute of Public Health
Discussant: Atle Dyregrov, Center for Crisis Psychology, Norway

War related traumas describe a variety of experiences that children are exposed to and perceive as extremely stressful or life-threatening, and that affect them in complex ways: directly in terms of hazards to their health, in particular mental health, and indirectly through hazards to their parents’ health and the consequences this may have on their caretaking functioning. War and internal conflicts also turn an increasing number of families into refugees and asylumseekers, or force families to decide to send children away unaccompanied by their caretakers in the hope that they will find safety, better living conditions and decent lives. Whatever the situation is for children who are victims of war related traumas, the social relationships they are part of are among the most important resources for their coping and well-being. The goal of the symposium is to provide information about the role of different social relationships for psychosocial adaptation among children of different ages growing up within various post traumatic contexts both in own country, country of first asylum, and resettlement countries after status as refugees or need for asylum have been approved. More specifically, the first aim is to describe and discuss differences in the developmental contexts children and youth have available after having experienced war related traumas. The second, third and fourth aims are to provide knowledge about a) ways in which relations with various family members support short and long term adaptation; b) the role of professional caretakers in long term adaptation of resettled unaccompanied minor asylumseekers; c) the potential of strengthening family relations and individual resources in families that have been exposed to severe trauma. The first presentation explores the association between maternal distress and 2 – 6 years old children’s psychological adaptation and peer relations in refugee families in the country of first asylum. The second study discusses the results of an intervention targeting sibling relationships and attachment styles to facilitate effective emotion regulation among 10 – 13 years old children in families traumatized by war. The third presenter informs about short and long term adaptation of refugee children, who were 3 – 15 years upon arrival, and the how parents’ open, sensitive communication can facilitate coping in their offspring. Finally, the role of professional caretakers and family members in the close relationships and psychological adaptation of unaccompanied minor asylumseekers after they have been granted residency is discussed. By focusing on children in a family situation and children who are separated from their caretakers, in addition to different stages of the asylum-seeking process, the four papers together provide new insights into the consequences of war related trauma and the role of social relationships with family, peer, and professional caretakers in psychosocial adaptation during childhood and adolescence.

S12.1
Coping with trauma and exile: the role of social relationships
Montgomery, E.

S12.2
On the way to nowhere: context of development and relationships for child refugees in a country of first asylum
Robinson, J.

S12.3
Social predictors of emotion regulation among children in traumatic conditions:
Punamäki, R., Quota, S., Palosaari, E., Diab, M.

S12.4
Attachment and psychological adaptation of unaccompanied minor asylumseekers: The role of formal and informal networks
Oppedal, B.



Friday 26 August         16.15 – 17.45                    Room: Salong Nina

EARLY PREDICTORS OF PSYCHOPATOLOGY AND ADVERSITIES IN ADOLESCENCE - FINDINGS FROM TWO LARGE NORWEGIAN POPULATION-BASED STUDIES

Chair: Gertrud Sofie Hafstad, Norwegian Institute of Public Health

The identification of early precursors of later mental health problems may be crucial to inform preventive efforts and early intervention. The current symposium aims to identify risk factors of three different adverse outcomes in adolescence; symptoms of anxiety and depression, eating disorders, and sexual victimization. These issues are examined using data from a prospective longitudinal study of 921 Norwegian mothers and their children followed from 18 months to 18 years of age over eight data collection waves (TOPP-study) and a large population-based study with 8984 Norwegian adolescents (Ung-HUNT). We believe that the long time span (15 years), the sample sizes and the potential to identify predictors at a very early age (18 months) constitute particular strengths and add to the novelty of the findings presented. This session may contribute to a better understanding of the development and precursors of a range of negative mental health outcomes in the general population and thus be able to inform prevention interventions. In the first presentation, Wendy Nilsen examines possible moderating and mediating effects of social competence on the association between early maternal symptoms of distress and adolescent depressive symptoms, based on data from the TOPP-study. Nilsen is followed by Gertrud Sofie Hafstad, who has investigated how temperamental shyness and negative affectivity before the age of four predict eating problems in adolescence. In the third presentation, Frøydis Enstad examines factors that increase the risk of sexual abuse and assault in early and in later adolescence. Finally, Ingri Myklestad presents data from 8984 Norwegian adolescents (13 to 19 years) and their parents in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT), investigating potential adolescent and parental psychosocial risk and protective factors for psychological distress among adolescents.

S27.1
Prospective associations between social competence and adolescent depressive symptoms
Nilsen, W., Karevold, E., Røysamb, E., Mathiesen, K.S.

S27.2
Early childhood predictors of eating concerns in adolescence
Hafstad, G.S., von Soest, T., Torgersen, L.

S27.3
Risk and protective factors for psychological distress among adolescents: A family study in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study.
Myklestad, I., Røysamb, E., Tambs, K.



Saturday 27 August         08.30 – 10.00                    Room: Salong Nina

EARLY DIAGNOSIS OF AUTISM: A STATE OF AFFAIRS AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS

Chair: Petra Warreyn, Ghent University, Belgium

Autism is a lifelong, pervasive disorder, impacting the functioning of the individual on many domains. Up till now, a reliable diagnosis of autism cannot be made before the age of two, and in many cases, autism is not diagnosed before the age of 4. However, research has shown that early diagnosis, enabling enrolment in treatment programs, can reduce or prevent many secondary problems, and promotes social-communicative development, resulting in better outcomes. The current symposium focuses on very recent and innovative research, identifying possible early markers of autism spectrum disorders in the first two years of life. Aims of the session: The session aims to 1) give an overview of the current state of affairs in early diagnosis of autism, 2) complete this overview with very recent research findings, achieved with innovative methods and techniques, and 3) point to the importance of both social and non-social aspects of development to be considered in early diagnosis. Outline of the session, overview and integration of the presentations: The symposium will start with an outline of the most important research findings up till now (Petra Warreyn; Belgium). After that, Julie Brisson (France) will present her research on family home video’s, identifying several characteristics of autism that are already visible in the first 6 months of age. Next, Mayada Elsabbagh (UK) will present results of the UK-siblings study, indicating that both social perception and inhibitory control at 9 months are predictive of later autism symptomatology. The third presenter, Petra Warreyn (Belgium), will report results of a Flemish sibling follow-up study (18 – 24 months), stressing the importance of measuring joint attention skills in at-risk populations. Next, Emma Van Daalen (The Netherlands) presents diagnostic conclusions of the Dutch screening study, indicating the importance of the full DSM-IV-TR algorithm, even though several criteria are not applicable for two-year-olds. Finally, Lieselot Ruysschaert (Belgium), will explore the mirror neuron system and its diagnostics usefulness in infants with autism, siblings, and typically developing infants. We will conclude the session with an integration of the individual study results, stressing the importance of evaluating a variety of developmental domains when autism is considered as a possible diagnosis, rather than oversimplifying reality by focussing on single predictors.

S31.1
Very early interactive deficit in autism: new results from retrospective video analysis
Brisson, J., Serres, J., Barthélémy, C., Adrien, J.

S31.2
Looking beneath behaviour: Early brain development in infants at-risk for autism
Elsabbagh, M., Baron-Cohen, S., Bedford, R., Bolton, P., Chandler, S., Charman, T., Clifford, S., Fernandes, J., Garwood, H., Gliga, T., Hudry, K., Johnson, M.H., Tucker, L., Volein, A.

S31.3
Siblings at risk for ASD: a follow-up from 18 to 24 months
Warreyn, P., Schietecatte, I., Ruysschaert, L., Van der Paelt, S., Roeyers, H.

S31.4
Is using the DSM-IV algorithm for Autistic Disorder enough for diagnosing Autism Spectrum Disorders in Toddlers?
Van Daalen, E., Kemner, C., Dietz, C., van Engeland, H., Buitelaar, J.K.

S31.5
Infants’ mirror neuron activity during the observation of real and mimicked actions: an EEG study
Ruysschaert, L., Warreyn, P., Wiersema, J.R., Handl, A., Pattyn, G., Roeyers, H.



Saturday 27 August         10.15 – 11.45                    Room: Salong Nina

JUVENILE DELINQUENCY AND ITS RISK FACTORS

Chair: Sandrine Pihet, University of Lausanne, Switzerland

To present recent results sheding new light on well-known external (peer pressure and parental monitoring) and internal (psychopathic traits, positive implicit attitudes towards violence and transgression, low self-esteem) risk factors involved in juvenile delinquency. Outline of the session and individual contributions: Adolescent offenders are responsible for an important number of serious offences. Regarding external factors putting adolescents at risk of offending, the impact of neighborhood factors has been shown to be largely mediated by processes occurring within the family and peer group: antisocial behavior is strongly enhanced by low parental monitoring and by high peer pressure. New results as to how the peer group composition and youth disclosure within the family influence deviant and normative talk will be presented. Regarding internal risk factors, over the last decades, much research efforts have been aimed at identifying the developmental course of the chronic subgroup of offenders, searching for its precursors, correlates, and long-term consequences. In this line, the presence of psychopathic traits, which encompass lack of guilt or shame, lack of empathy and concern about other’s feelings, shallow emotions, and the callous use of others for one’s own gain, characterizes a subgroup of adolescents with a distinct neurocognitive profile (similar to that of adult psychopaths in terms of insensitivity to punishment and distress cues), more extreme behavior problems in terms of intensity, and more severe and proactive aggression, associated to a worse prognosis. However, the number of dimensions to be used in the assessment of psychopathic traits is still subject to debate. New evidence regarding this issue will be presented, stemming from community and high-risk samples. Information is also still lacking as to how these factors may lead an adolescent to respond in a violent fashion. Mental models, defined as internal mental representations, are thought to play a key role in this regard, since they at the same time integrate the evolving outcomes of life experiences and guide subsequent information processing and behavior. First results as to the relations between psychopathic traits and implicit attitudes towards violence and transgression will be exposed. Finally, low self-esteem is a well-known risk factor for many mental health disorders, but results in Western juvenile offenders are contradictory. New evidence stemming from a sample of Japanese juvenile offenders will be presented.List of presenters: Cécile Mathys, Sandrine Pihet, Maya Suter, Naomi Matsuura.

S33.1
The development of normative and antisocial talk in a experimental design with delinquent and non delinquent adolescents in association with youth disclosure.
Mathys, C., Born, M.

S33.2
Assessing psychopathic traits in community and high-risk adolescents by self-report: how many dimensions?
Pihet, S., Suter, M., Stephan, P., Perler, C., Francescotti, E., Schmid, M.

S33.3
Links between mental models and psychopathic traits in adolescents? A new assessment tool with the Implicit Association Test (IAT).
Suter, M., Pihet, S., Halfon, O., Stephan, P.

S33.4
Developmental and psychological disturbances in seriou juvenile offenders in Japan
Matsuura, N.


CHILDREN AND SCHOOL

Wednesday 24 August         08.30 – 10.00                    Room: Foaje 2 Griegsalen

CHALLENGING SOCIALLY EXCLUSIVE PEER RELATIONS IN CHILDREN

Chair: Adam Rutland, University of Kent, United Kingdom & Drew Nesdale, Griffith University, Australia

Children can socially exclude their peers for legitimate reasons (e.g. rejecting a poor footballer from their school team because they have weak ball skills); however, often social exclusion is based upon prejudice, concerns about group identity and the particular application of moral reasoning. This symposium will describes research that examines this latter form of social exclusion by focusing on children’s attitudes towards peers from other groups, reasoning and judgments about acts of social exclusion and levels of cross-group friendship. The first paper will examine how the development of children’s negative intergroup attitudes and behavior intentions might be hindered by contrary school norms that limit the effect of social group norms that promote negative intergroup attitudes. The next study shows that amongst ethnic minority children the level of close and intimate contact with ethnic majority teachers may be a better predictor of their intergroup attitudes than classroom norms about multiculturalism. The third paper describes research suggesting that amongst ethnic majority and minority children any negative effects of social-emotional factors on cross-ethnic peer relationships may be alleviated by contact between ethnic groups within ethnically diverse schools. The final paper will focus on children’s reasoning and judgments about acts of social exclusion, and shows the role of group dynamics, intentionality and morality in their formation. The research described within this symposium should inform interventions and policies aimed at reducing social exclusion within peer relations by challenging children’s attitudes, social-moral reasoning and cross-group friendships.

S3.1
Can community norms inhibit the effects of social group norms on children’s negative intergroup attitudes and behavior intentions?
Nesdale, D.

S3.2
Student-teacher relationships and ethnic bias in late childhood
Thijs, J.

S3.3
A longitudinal study of children’s cross-ethnic peer relationships: The role of social-emotional development, ethnicity and school ethnic diversity
Rutland, A., Jugert, P., Cameron, L., Nigbur, D., Brown, R., Cameron, L., Hossain, R., Landau, A., Le Touze, D., Watters, C.

S3.4
Social exclusion, intentionality, and morality
Killen, M., Mulvey, K.L., Hitti, A., Cooley, S.



Thursday 25 August         13.00 – 14.30                    Room: Bukken

SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIAL SUPPORT CORRELATES OF ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE, HEALTH BEHAVIOURS, HEALTH COMPLAINTS AND LIFE SATISFACTION IN ADOLESCENCE : FINDINGS FROM THE HBSC STUDY

Chair: Oddrun Samdal, University of Bergen, Norway

From a public health and health-promotion perspective, the aim is to facilitate best possible growth and adjustment during adolescence. The reduction of health-compromising behaviours and health complaints and the promotion of healthy behaviours and life satisfaction may therefore be considered essential goals. The way adolescents experience school and the extent to which these experiences meet their basic needs are likely to influence the development of health and life satisfaction related outcomes. Furthermore, satisfaction with school experiences may also from an educational perspective be seen as an important prerequisite for learning and academic achievement in school in terms of increased motivation and concentration on learning tasks.. The current symposium aims to present findings on these type of relationships by utilising data from the “Health Behaviour in School-aged Children. A WHO Cross-National Survey” (HBSC), focussing on the relationship between students’ experiences in school and their academic performance as well as their health-behaviour, health complaints, and life satisfaction. The HBSC study represents a unique source of nationally representative data that can be used for both monitoring health behaviours, health and life satisfaction as well as identifying correlates in different settings, such as the school setting. The data are collected every four years among representative samples of 11, 13 and 15 year olds. Currently 43 countries participate. In addition to a short presentation of the HBSC study four presentations will be held, each addressing the relationship between school perceptions and academic or health related outcomes. One presentation provides an overview of school correlates of health complaints across all the HBSC countries whereas the other studies provide in depth information on school correlates of respectively academic achievement, health behaviours and life satisfaction in Canada, Norway and Romania. Cross-referencing and integration of the presentation is intended achieved by the presenters and also through dialogue with the audience.

S13.1
What can the HBSC Study offer in the study of the relationship between school perceptions and learning and health outcomes : brief introduction to the HBSC study
Leversen, I. Samdal, O.

S13.2
Basic needs, achievement goals and life satisfaction: a comparison between two age groups
Diseth, Å., Danielsen, A.G., Samdal, O.

S13.3
The relationships between school environment perceptions and academic performance in Canada and Norway.
Samdal, O., Danielsen, A.G., Freeman, J.G.

S13.4
The effect of school adjustment on adaptive behaviors in Romanian children and adolescents
Kallay, E., Vonas, G., Baban, A.

S13.5
Cross-cultural differences in school support: the hbsc study
Torsheim, T., Samdal, O., Rasmussen, M., Freeman, J., Griebler, R.



Friday 26 August         08.30 – 10.00                    Room: Foaje 2 Griegsalen

RELATIONS BETWEEN BEHAVIORAL SELF-REGULATION AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN EUROPE AND ASIA

Chair: Phillipe Guimard, University of Nantes, France

From a public health and health-promotion perspective, the aim is to facilitate best possible growth and adjustment during adolescence. The reduction of health-compromising behaviours and health complaints and the promotion of healthy behaviours and life satisfaction may therefore be considered essential goals. The way adolescents experience school and the extent to which these experiences meet their basic needs are likely to influence the development of health and life satisfaction related outcomes. Furthermore, satisfaction with school experiences may also from an educational perspective be seen as an important prerequisite for learning and academic achievement in school in terms of increased motivation and concentration on learning tasks.. The current symposium aims to present findings on these type of relationships by utilising data from the “Health Behaviour in School-aged Children. A WHO Cross-National Survey” (HBSC), focussing on the relationship between students’ experiences in school and their academic performance as well as their health-behaviour, health complaints, and life satisfaction. The HBSC study represents a unique source of nationally representative data that can be used for both monitoring health behaviours, health and life satisfaction as well as identifying correlates in different settings, such as the school setting. The data are collected every four years among representative samples of 11, 13 and 15 year olds. Currently 43 countries participate. In addition to a short presentation of the HBSC study four presentations will be held, each addressing the relationship between school perceptions and academic or health related outcomes. One presentation provides an overview of school correlates of health complaints across all the HBSC countries whereas the other studies provide in depth information on school correlates of respectively academic achievement, health behaviours and life satisfaction in Canada, Norway and Romania. Cross-referencing and integration of the presentation is intended achieved by the presenters and also through dialogue with the audience.

S19.1
Early Behavioral Regulation Predicts Math and Vocabulary Over One Year Later in Taiwan
Wanless S.B., McClelland, M.M., Chen, F., Chen, J.

S19.2
Transition to School – Early Behavior Regulation Promotes Successful Academic Learning in German First Graders
von Suchodoletz, A., Gunzenhauser, C.

S19.3
Self-regulation among Icelandic children in preschool and links to language and literacy one year later
Gestsdóttir, S., Ragnarsdóttir, H., Birgisdóttir, F.

S19.4
Links between Behavioral Regulation and Academic Achievement from Kindergarten to 1st Grade in France.
Guimard, P., Hubert, B., Crusson-Pondeville, S., Cosnefroy, O., Nocus, I.



Friday 26 August         13.00 – 14.30                    Room: Foaje 2 Griegsalen

FROM SCHOOL BURNOUT TO ENGAGEMENT

Chair: Katariina Salmela-Aro, University of Helsinki, Finland
Discussant: Jacque Eccles, University of Michigan, USA

Recent evidence has shown that also students’ burnout at school defined as exhaustion, cynical attitude towards school and feelings of inadequacy (Salmela-Aro, 2009). In turn engagement refers to vigour, dedication and absorption. This multidisciplinary (education, psychology, social psychology) symposium includes five papers from Finland, Germany, UK and US by using the longitudinal FinEdu and LSYPE data sets in the context of theories of stage-environment fit (Eccles & Midgley, 1989) and expectancy-value (Eccles, 1983). Lotta Tynkkynen (University of Helsinki) presents gendered cross-lagged paths between school burnout and bullying. Heta Tuominen-Soini (University of Helsinki) presents four school-related well-being clusters (well-adjusted, engaged-exhausted, maladjusted and disengaged) in general upper secondary school. Katja Upadhyaya (University of Michigan) identified three groups according to the level and changes in engagement (high engagement towards school and work, average school engagement which decreased at work, low school engagement which increased at work). Jennifer Symonds and Ingrid Schoon (University of London) compared Finnish and UK students in school engagement by examining latent profile trajectories in engagement and its role for their later university participation. Finally, Julia Dietrich (University of Erfurt) presents the role of career goals to school burnout and engagement by using a three-wave longitudinal data on students during educational transitions. Professor Jacquelynne Eccles (University of Michigan) will discuss the five papers.

S23.1
School Burnout and Bullying: A Cross-Lagged Longitudinal Study
Tynkkynen, L., Salmela-Aro, K.

S23.2
Students’ school-related well-being in general upper secondary school: Engagement and/or burnout?
Tuominen-Soini, H.

S23.3
From school to work: Development of schoolwork engagement
Upadyaya, K., Salmela-Aro, K.

S23.4
Latent Profile Trajectories of Adolescents’ Emotional Engagement with Secondary School in Finland and England: Effects on University Expectations and Participation
Symonds, J., Schoon, I., Salmela-Aro, K.

S23.5
Pursuit of Career Goals During Secondary School: The Role of School Engagement and Burnout
Dietrich, J., Salmela-Aro, K.



Friday 26 August         16.15 – 17.45                    Room: Foaje 2 Griegsalen

THE MANY FACETS OF STUDENT-TEACHER RELATIONSHIPS: NEW INSIGHTS FROM INTERNATIONAL STUDIES OF SCHOOL ENTRY AND BEYOND

Chairs: Liselotte Ahnert, University of Vienna, Austria & Linda J. Harrison, Charles Sturt University, Australia

International studies have demonstrated the broad applicability of the teacher-rated Student-Teacher Relationship Scale (STRS: Pianta, 2001) and its subscales (closeness, conflict, dependency) across culturally diverse school settings (e.g., Ahnert et al., 2006; Hamre & Pianta, 2001; Harrison et al., 2007; Verscheuren & Koonen, 2009). However, the ecological validity of the STRS has yet to be fully explored. The present papers from Great Britain, Central Europe and Australia (re)consider the STRS in combination with child temperament and attachment, classroom behavior, stress reactivity, and school adjustment to explore the specific sensitivity of STRS across different school cultures. The British paper (Pei-Jung (Annie) Yang & Michael E. Lamb; University of Cambridge, Cambridge/United Kingdom) examines student-teacher relationship closeness and conflict within a broad array of measures describing children’s adaptation to school entry, with a specific focus on the role of temperament and child-parent attachment. The German paper (Michael Gluer & Bettina Hannover, Free University of Berlin/Germany) closely examines characteristics of student-teacher relations within the ecology of the early elementary school classroom. As in the past, these two studies rely on single dimensions of relationship quality generated by the STRS subscales. In contrast, the Australian and Austrian papers seek to incorporate these dimensions into holistic patterns that may differentiate broad characterizations of student-teacher relationships, and as follows, their developmental consequences. The Australian paper (Linda J. Harrison, Charles Sturt University, Bathurst/Australia) successfully identifies four distinct patterns of relationships which match children’s representations of relationships and teachers’ estimations of children’s school adjustment. The Austrian paper (Lieselotte Ahnert, Elena Harwardt, Gregor Kappler & Tina Eckstein, University of Vienna/Austria) identifies the same patterns and links these to children’s stress reactivity (diurnal cortisol patterns), engagement and effort, and school liking. The symposium will reflect how teachers’ reports on their relationships with the students can and cannot predict a variety of indicators for school adjustment. In the light of recent research, thus prospects and limits of the Student-Teacher-Relationship-Scale are discussed.

S28.1
Effects of temperament and attachment on young children’s first school experiences
Yang, P., Lamb, M.E.

S28.2
Observing quality of student-teacher relationships in elementary school classrooms
Glüer, M., Hannover, B.

S28.3
Student-teacher relationship profiles and school adjustment: A replicability study with Australian kindergarten children
Harrison, L.J.

S28.4
Stress reactivity as related to student-teacher relationships in first grade
Ahnert, L., Harwardt, E., Kappler, G., Eckstein, T.


PERSONALITY AND SELF DEVELOPMENT

Friday 26 August         08.30 – 10.00                    Room: Foaje 2 Peer Gynt

INTEGRATING ANTECEDENTS AND CONSEQUENCES OF EMOTION REGULATION IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS: CONTRIBUTIONS FROM DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY, DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOPATHOLOGY, AND PERSONALITY PSYCHOLOGY.

Chairs: Catherine Gunzenhauser, University of Freiburg, Germany & Sakari Lemola, University of Basel, Switzerland

Successful emotion regulation contributes to better health, closer interpersonal relationships, and higher life satisfaction. The purpose of the suggested symposium is to examine antecedents and consequences of individual differences in emotion regulation in children and adolescents, integrating evidence from the fields of developmental psychology, developmental psychopathology, and personality psychology from research groups in Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and Switzerland. The aims of the symposium are (1) to shed light into research on individual differences in emotion regulation in everyday situations that are crucial to children’s and adolescents’ adaptive functioning and (2) to clarify the role of cognitive dispositions (i.e. positive or negative cognitive orientation) for emotion regulation. The session comprises two parts: The first two papers focus on emotion regulation in specific situations, illustrating individual differences in clinical and non-clinical samples. The first paper (Dewald, Meijer, et al.) which is based on an adolescent sample from the Netherlands used daily diaries to show that individuals with high levels of performance anxiety suffer from stress and sleep problems, pointing to deficiencies in emotion regulation strategies. The second paper (Krämer, Schmitz & Tuschen-Caffier) compared post-event processing of German children with social anxiety and control children after an experimentally induced stressful social situation. Socially anxious children tended to report more negative post-event processing. Positive post-event processing was associated to the use of reappraisal. The second part of the symposium focuses on cognitive antecedents of emotion regulation, aiming to outline developmental pathways. The third paper (Lemola, Räikkönen, et al.) is based on two samples of children from Finland and Germany and presents the Parent-rated Life Orientation Test of children, a new measure of dispositional optimism in childhood and its relation to emotion regulation. The fourth paper (Gunzenhauser & von Suchodoletz) investigated the unique contributions of emotional negativity and optimism on the emotion regulation strategy of reappraisal in German children, suggesting that reappraisal skills may be facilitated or impaired by either factor independently. The fifth paper (Alessandri & Caprara) shows with longitudinal data on Italian adolescents that a positive cognitive orientation towards life, self and future contributes to psychological resilience and interpersonal functioning. Taken together, these papers provide insights in the development of emotion regulation in children and adolescents. The discussion will focus on possible ways to foster effective emotion regulation strategies in children with and without clinically relevant problems.

S20.1
The mediating effect of stress in the relationship between adolescents’ test anxiety and sleep
Dewald, J.F., Meijer, A.M., Oort, F.J., Kerkhof, G.A., Bögels, S.M.

S20.2
How do socially anxious children process anxiety provoking situations?
Krämer, M., Schmitz, J., Tuschen-Caffier, B.

S20.3
Measurement of optimism in preschool and school age children
Lemola, S., Räikkönen, K., von Suchodoletz, A., Gunzenhauser, C., Scheier, M.F., Matthews, K.A., Pesonen, A, Heinonen, K., Lahti, J., Komsi, N.

S20.4
Cognitive Reappraisal in Preschool Children: Emotional negativity makes it harder, optimism makes it easier
Gunzenhauser, C., von Suchodoletz, A.

S20.5
Developmental influences of Positive orientation on emotion expression, quality of friendships, and psychological resilience through emerging adulthood
Alessandri, G., Caprara, G.V.



Friday 26 August         13.00 – 14.30                    Room: Foaje 2 Peer Gynt

PERCEIVED CITIZENSHIP AMONG YOUNG PEOPLE: HOW DO THE PERCEPTIONS RELATE TO INDIVIDUALS’ OWN CONSTRUCTIONS OF AND EXPECTATIONS ABOUT CITIZENSHIP?

Chair: Tulin Sener, Ankara University, Turkey

The purpose of this symposium is to discuss the preliminary results of an EU 7th Frame Project, namely PIDOP - Processes Influencing Democratic Ownership and Participation that aims to investigate civic and political engagement and participation among European citizens, with a distinctive focus on the psychology of the individual citizen. The project tries to examine people’s perceptions as citizens and their senses of belonging and ownership in their communities. It is important to see how they experience this role and sense of belonging in order to promote active citizenship. Thus, a range of diverse groups that are at risk of political disengagement due to age, gender, ethnicity or migration are taken into account. In particular women, young people, and ethnic minorities and migrants are subject to the project. The papers in this symposium will focus on the perceptions of citizenship behaviour underlying the social, political and psychological processes such as unemployment, racism, voting, decion-making. Although the project has being conducted in 9 European countries, in this symposia the results of Czech Republic, UK and Turkey will be presented. Data collected from focus groups and also with questionnaires (Czech group) with 16-26 years old youngsters both from majority and minority groups in each country will be discussed. The overall results show that the perceptions of young people on citizenship is important considering themselves as full-rights citizens or not. Young people’s perceptions of their position within the countries in which they live, and their perceptions of their own political efficacy, are linked to their levels of civic and political participation. The session will begin with the UK team where they examine the perceptions of young people on pre-voting and post-voting age. Data were collected from nine focus groups with British Bangladeshi and English young people in London. The second presentation will be the Turkish study where they also discuss the results of the focus groups comparing Turkish young people, Bulgarian Turks and Roma people. The given opportunities and resources are seem to be major effects on the perceptions of participation. The Czech team will end up the session discussing the results of a larger survey, completed by over 700 young people from majority and two minority groups as well as the results of the focus groups. Age, ethnicity and also gender are concern to all papers and they appeared to be related to young people’s perceptions of the existing opportunities to participate.

S24.1
Perceptions of citizenship amongst young people of pre-voting and post-voting age in London: What changes with eligibility to vote?”
Pachi, D., Barrett, M.

S24.2
Understanding of participation and citizenship among youngsters and emerging adults: The effects of experiences and sources.
Sener, T.

S24.3
Who should solve problems of our society? Perceived responsibility for social and political issues among adolescents and emerging adults.
Petrovicova, Z., Serek, J., Macek, P.



Friday 26 August         16.15 – 17.45                    Room: Foaje 2 Peer Gynt

DESIGNING HIGHTECH FOR LOWTECH USERS TECHNOLOGICAL SOLUTIONS AND FACTORS FACILITATING THE UPTAKE OF ICT AMONG ELDERLY PEOPLE

Chairs: Anja Leist, University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg & Dieter Ferring, University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg

Stakeholders and policy makers generally agree on the huge influence information and communication technologies (ICT) already have on everyday life and it’s a safe assumption that the magnitude of these impacts will even increase in the coming years. Although these technologies are basically designed to facilitate life, they also bear a risk of social segregation: Representative studies (e.g., EUROSTAT, 2005) could delineate populations in which the use, the knowledge and the interest in modern ICT can be described as rather poor. Along with other factors that are likely to influence the uptake of ICT (e.g., educational attainment), old age can still be related to lower use. Psychological sciences are of central importance when it comes to understand the use of ICT in elderly populations as they first, largely account to the knowledge about the determinants of the uptake or non-uptake of ICT and second, provide information on design factors that are likely to close the gap between the available technologies and the elderly users’ needs and specificities. The present symposium encloses four innovative research and development programs that target the use of ICT in elderly populations by focussing on user experience and by reflecting elderly peoples’ needs and wishes. All four contributions are rooted in interdisciplinary research and regroup researchers from different European countries. The first presentation by Leist et al. introduces the project V2me which specifically aims at alleviating loneliness among elderly people: Relying on an empirically tested friendship enrichment programme, the system encloses a virtual coach serving as a social mediator. Based on empirical data from N = 300 German elderly respondents, Claßen et al. will focus in the second presentation on attitudes and expectations expressed among elderly people facing modern technologies. The TIVIPOL project – which is presented in the third contribution by Ferring et al. – aimed at enhancing social life in retirement homes in Luxembourg by proposing tangible user interfaces. Finally in the fourth presentation, Roelofsma et al. will present data from the Dutch CAMeRA workgroup focussing on elderly user experience. All four contributions demonstrate the importance of psychological science and research paradigms to understand the attitudes and specificities of elderly people facing ICT and original solutions are proposed that aim at enhancing elderly people’s lives.

S29.1
Alleviating Loneliness in Old Age With an ICT-Based Social Enrichment Programme – Introducing the AAL Project V2me
Leist, A., Michels, T., Ferring, D.

S29.2
“I don’t want to break anything!” – On the introduction of an ICT system in a resident home
Ferring, D., Hoffman, M., Leist, A., Otjacques, B., Feltz, F.

S29.3
User centred design of AAL systems for the Elderly: How to optimize user involvement in system development
Roeslofma, P.H.M.P.

TRACK 8

Wednesday 24 August         13.00 – 14.30                    Room: Bukken

SLEEP PROBLEMS IN CHILDHOOD AND ADOLESCENTS

Chairs: Børge Sivertsen, Norwegian Institute of Public Health & Mari Hysing, University of Bergen, Norway

The purpose of the symposium is to present some of the latest developments within research on sleep and sleep problems in children and adolescents. Employing methods ranging from longitudinal total population-based studies to methodological studies, and clinical trials, the symposium will focus on both the aetiology, stability, risk factors and consequences of different sleep problems in these important age cohorts. Ane Wilhelmsen-Langeland from the University of Bergen will start by presenting new and innovative data from a double-blinded randomized-controlled trial examining the effects of melatonin and light therapy on delayed sleep phase syndrome in adolescents 16 up to 20 years old. Wilhelmsen will also present data on how these patients cope and experience living with the disorder. Professor Jim Stevenson, from the University of Southampton, UK, will then present data comparing parental reports of sleep and sleep problems with objective actigraphy, concluding that these assessment methods provide differing, but complimentary, information about a child’s sleep habits. Hedvig Fosse from the Uni Health, Bergen, Norway, will present data on the direction of risk between sleep and mental health problems in school-aged children, using data from a longitudinal total population-based study: The Bergen Child study. Mari Hysing from Betanien Hospital and University of Bergen, Norway, will then present new data on sleep and sleep problems in special populations from the Bergen Child Study. Focusing on risk factors, comorbidity, and chronicity of sleep problems, both in children with chronic illness and children with autism spectrum disorder, these results are the first of its kind using a longitudinal population-based design. Finally, Tormod Bøe from Uni Health, Norway will present data on the association between sleep and sleep problems in children, and parental socioeconomic status. Also employing data from the Bergen Child Study, these findings provide new insights to a field which has received surprisingly little attention. The symposium will start with a brief introduction of the research area by Dr. Mari Hysing, who will also co-chair the symposium alongside Dr. Børge Sivertsen from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health.

S5.1
Am I just a lazy slacker? A qualitative study on the experience of living with Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome in young adulthood.
Wilhelmsen-Langeland, A., Dundas, I., Saxvig, I.W., Pallesen, S., Nordhus, I.H., Bjorvatn, B.

S5.2
Sleep duration and cognition, behaviour and school performance in children.
Stevenson, J., Holley, S., Hill, C.

S5.3
Time in bed, sleep sufficiency and emotional and behavioural problems in a general population of 10-12 year old children
Fosse, H.E., Pallesen, S., Hysing, M., Stormark, K.

S5.4
Sleep and emotional problems in children with a chronic illness
Hysing, M.

S5.5
Childhood sleep problems and familial socioeconomic status
Bøe, T., Hysing, M., Lundervold, A.J., Sivertsen, B.



Wednesday 24 August         16.15 – 17.45                    Room: Småtroll

PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIOCULTURAL ADAPTATION IN IMMIGRANT YOUTH: THE ROLE OF INDIVIDUAL, SCHOOL AND FAMILY RELATED FACTORS

Chair: Hildegunn Fandrem, University of Stavanger, Norway

Integrating to a new society may be a challenging task and are dependent of many different factors. Many individual, school and family related factors may be crucial in successful social integration and psychological well being of immigrant youth. Over the past years the studies of these issues have increased, however there are still aspects that need to be investigated. This symposium includes 4 new studies from different European countries; Turkey/Austria, Germany/Israel, Greece and Sweden. The studies focus on predictors for sociocultural and psychological adaptation, in terms of risk and protective factors, as well as identification.The main goal of Paper 1 was to investigate experiences of migration both within country and between countries (the sending and the receiving country). Findings indicate that Turkish 1st generation immigrant youths in Austria had lower self esteem, felt lonelier and were more depressed and anxious compared to natives and 2nd generation immigrants. Paper 2 focus on young Diaspora immigrants in Germany and Israel coming from Russia. The main aim was to investigate the role of identification (e. g. “German” versus “Russian”) for cultural adaptation and successful intergroup relations. Growth curve modeling revealed that identification play a role for the attitudes towards different groups, language use and who one chooses as peers. In paper 3 native Greek students are compared with Albanian immigrant students in Greece according to school achievement and the role of adversity and different individual and family resources. Results indicate that parental school involvement, family support and parents’ educational level, in addition to the individual factors; self-efficacy beliefs and locus of control, are positively related to academic achievement. School is also the issue in the fourth, and last, paper. The goal in this paper was to compare immigrants and non-immigrants in Sweden, living in high and low SES neighborhoods, regarding school as a resource in fostering democratic ideals and in feeling safe. Multinomial regression analyses showed that immigrant youth, more than non-immigrant youth, experienced their school as “a safe haven” and a democratic place that increased their willingness to talk about issues important to them. Collectively the papers contribute new information about important factors being resources for immigrants and their positive integration in a new society. This knowledge has policy implications and can also be useful for schools in efforts to promote social integration and positive psychological adaptation for immigrant youth

S7.1
The effects of migration and immigration on adolescents’ psychological health: A cross national study in Austria and Turkey
Dogan, A., Strohmeier, D., Stefanek, E.

S7.2
Young Diaspora Immigrants' Cultural Identifications and Their Intergroup Attitudes and Behaviors
Stoessel, K., Titzmann, P.F., Silbereisen, R.K.

S7.3
Risk, resources and academic achievement of immigrant youth living in Greece
Anagnostaki, L., Pavlopoulos, V., Obradovic, J., Masten, A., Motti-Stefanidi, F.

S7.4
School as a Safe Haven
Svensson, Y., Stattin, H.



Friday 26 August         08.30 – 10.00                    Room: Småtroll

GESTURES, OBJECTS, SEMIOTIC SYSTEMS AND CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT

Chair: Christiane Moro, University of Lausanne, Switzerland

Following Vygotsky and his main insight concerning the crucial role of cultural semiotic systems in the emergence and functioning of human mental processes, we will examine, in a semiotic perspective, the role of objects and gestures implying objects (i.e. materiality) (Moro & Rodríguez, 2005 ; 2008 ; Moro & Joannes, 2009 ; in press) as source and resource for human development related to various sorts of semiotic systems, each time more complex, during ontogenesis. Our conception is to be distinguished from the orientation of gesture studies where objects included in gestures are only considered in terms of their physical features and are disconnected from cultural semiotic systems (e.g. Streeck, 1996). The presentations complement each other in that they address similar issues pertaining to the role of materiality in psychological development in different institutional contexts. The first presentation will explore gestures and their functions produced by infants in relation to the entry in conventional use of objects from the onset of intentional communication in infant-object-adult interaction (8-24 months infants). The second presentation will examine the status of materiality and its connexion with educational intentions in a child care centre (2-3 and 3-4 year-old children). The third presentation will examine how materiality constitutes a resource for 4-6 year-old pupils at nursery school to build new speaking capacities and to enter proto-disciplinary knowledge. The 4th presentation will analyze the resource that constitutes materiality as the pupils learn to read at school (in two cohorts from 5 to 8 year-old pupils).

S21.1
Gesture production and meaning construction by the preverbal child – relationship between object use understanding and communication development
Dimitrova, N.

S21.2
Materiality and development in educational situations in a child care centre in Lausanne (materiality as a resource for development)
Tapparel, S.

S21.3
The role of gestures and objects in the development of speech at Swiss nursery school
Moro, C.

S21.4
Learning to read in ordinary classroom situations : the role entailed by materiality through teacher’s practices
Perdicakis, C.


TRACK 9

Thursday 25 August         08.30 – 10.00                    Room: Troldtog

THE CONSEQUENCES OF YOUNG PRESCHOOLERS’ MORAL JUDGEMENTS FOR THEIR BEHAVIOUR TOWARDS THE JUDGED

Chair: Ben Kenward, Uppsala University, Sweden
Discussant: Judy Dunn, Kings College London, United Kingdom

Although exciting results have recently become available showing that even infants are capable of evaluating others’ social behaviour in advanced ways, until now little has been known about how such evaluations influence children’s own social behaviour towards the evaluated. This symposium’s purpose is to fill this gap by examining new results illustrating the complex ways that young preschoolers modify their behaviour towards individuals on the basis of moral evaluations they make of those individuals’ third party interactions. The first specific aim is to present new results from two independent studies (Buon and Vaish) showing that young preschoolers’ social evaluations do fulfil one of the most important criteria to be considered as fully fledged moral judgements: the intentional status of actions (deliberate or accidental) is taken into account independently of the actions’ outcomes. It will also be noted, however, that taking intentionality into account is not straightforward, and even adults are unable to do so under certain circumstances (Buon). The second specific aim is to present new results from two independent studies (Kenward and Vaish) showing that young preschoolers indirectly reciprocate morally valenced behaviours, for example by behaving more prosocially towards those who are more prosocial towards third parties. Children expressed prosociality by helping (Vaish) or by preferentially allocating resources (Kenward). Children also showed sympathy to victims of antisociality and attempted to intervene in antisocial acts (Vaish). The third specific aim is to discuss to what extent these behaviours are generalizable outside the laboratory situations in which they were measured. The results will be placed in the broader context of young children’s moral development in an integrative discussion (Dunn).

S9.1
Moral mediators of young children’s prosocial behaviour.
Vaish, A.

S9.2
Why does it take so long to acquire moral maturity?
Buon, M., Jacob, P., Dupoux, E.

S9.3
Moral judgement, indirect reciprocity, preference for equal distributions, and appeasement in preschoolers
Kenward, B.

S9.4
Symposium discussion
Dunn, J.



Friday 26 August         13.00 – 14.30                    Room: Troldtog

THE IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGY ON RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL SETTINGS: SOME BEST PRACTICES

Chair: Angela Costabile, University of Calabria, Italy
Discussant: Ersilia Menesini, University of Florence, Italy

The symposium focus the attention on ICT and on their effects considering the children’s and adolescent’s development. In the last year interpersonal relationship and communication are, in many cases, build up and done using ICT technologies. The ICT use can have also negative effects such as cyberbullying phenomenon. Technology constantly and rapidly evolves around us, the evolution of cyberbullying over time, is evidenced by the progression from Web 1.0 to Web 2.0 platforms: from email and SMS to social networking sites, Twitter and virtual worlds, technology use different way to victimise others. The symposium is one of the first comparisons done between different nations involved in this topic: in Europe (Austria, Denmark, Italy, Poland, Spain) and in Australia. Whilst each nation has its own unique cultural identity and education system, new technologies cross all boundaries of time and place, making this session an exciting cross-cultural evidence-base of the positive uses of new and emerging technologies in relationships in educational settings. This symposium aims to underline the main challenge in ICT use: the positive uses of new technologies in relationships, applying mainly in educational settings and to present some data on cyberbullying. To reach this general aims we will offer a cross-cultural, international perspective on the positive uses of new and emerging technologies to improve social relationships and examples of best practice to prevent virtual bullying. Moreover the objective is to facilitate adults involved in educational settings (such as parents, teachers, educators) to recognize that ICT in relationships in educational settings can enable and empower young people and their wellbeing. There is, in fact, a sort of moral panic among parents, educators and policy makers which accompanies the notion of use of negative effects of ICT and in particular of cyberbullying and the strategies here presented are a good example about the positive use of technology in challenging and dealing with cyberbullying. The presenters are: Barbara Spears et al. will speak about the perceptions young people had on ICT, on their space, relevance and influence on their day life; Rosario Del Rey et al. will present some data from the analysis of positive strategies used in school to prevent cyberbullying, in collaboration with Spanish Ministry; Vera Popper et al., will underline some results of positive effects of notebook, used in Austrian schools; Jacek Pyzalski will speak about the project in Poland to use ICT in adolescent.

S25.1
Positive use of ICT
Spears, B., Palermiti A.L., Bartolo M.G., Costabile A., Kofoed J.

S25.2
Pro-sociality and positive use of the Internet: Spanish initiatives
Del Rey, R., Sánchez, V., Ortega, R.

S25.3
Positive use of the Internet by notebook classes: Evaluation und recommendations
Popper, V., Spiel, C., Strohmeier, D., Costabile, A., Spears, B.



Saturday 27 August         08.30 – 10.00                    Room: Foaje 2 Peer Gynt

THREE LONGITUDINAL STUDIES OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT USING DIFFERENT METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO IDENTIFY DEVELOPMENTAL PROCESSES AND PATTERNS

Chair: Evalill Karevold, Norwegian Institutt of Mental Health

This symposium will include presentations of different longitudinal studies that investigate the development of children’s shyness, externalizing problem behavior, and language comprehension based on both self-reports and maternal reports. The overall aim is to provide differential frameworks for studying child development during the early and late childhood years in population-based studies. Specifically, the symposium aims at extending knowledge about processes and patterns of development in shyness, externalizing behavior and language development, including identifying different developmental periods and underlying subgroups across development. Studies that investigate the longitudinal change and stability in children’s behaviour over time are important in order to understand the nature and contributors to child development. Large longitudinal population-based and prospective data are specifically suited to disclose differential patterns of development, and improve the strength of generalizations. The symposium is threefold. The first two presentations utilize data from the population-based TOPP study, while the last presentation depends upon data from the population-based Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort study. First, Evalill Karevold will present a study of the stability, change and socio-emotional outcomes of shyness levels in boys and girls from the age of 1.5 to 12.5 years (N=921) using latent growth curve models. Then, Anne Kjeldsen will present early predictors of stable high, transient high, and low externalizing problems trajectories from the age of 1.5 to 14.5 years in the same sample of children, using latent class analyses and multinomial logit regression analyses in a simultaneously estimated model. Last, Imac Maria Zambrana present how children’s development of language comprehension from 1.5 to 3 years depend on the child gender, maternal education and birth order, and the interaction between these factors (N= 42,517 (1.5 years), 30,511 (3 years)) using linear regression. This symposium aims at demonstrating different methodological approaches to the study of child development, contributing knowledge from longitudinal studies using both self- and maternal reports, and extending previous knowledge about the development of children’s shyness, externalizing problem behavior, and language comprehension.

S32.1
A Prospective Longitudinal Study of Shyness from Infancy to Adolescence: Stability, Change, and Prediction of Socio-Emotional Functioning
Karevold, E., Ystrøm, E., Coplan, R., Sanson, A., Mathiesen, K.S.

S32.2
Externalizing behaviors from infancy to mid-adolescence: Latent profiles and early predictors
Kjeldsen, A., Janson, H., Stoolmiller, M., Torgersen, L., Mathiesen, K.S.

S32.3
Predicting late development of language comprehension from age 18 to 36 months
Zambrana, I.M., Ystrøm, E., Pons, F.



Saturday 27 August         10.15 - 11.45                    Room: Småtroll

VIDEO INTERACTION GUIDANCE: HOW IT WORKS, CURRENT KNOWLEDGE ABOUT EFFECTS, AND TOOLS TO CAPTURE INTERVENTION EFFECTS

Chair: Mariska Klein Velderman, TNO Child Health, The Netherlands

Social scientists agree upon the importance of the quality of parent-child relationships. Different theories and a large amount of studies have for instance linked parent-child communication, maternal sensitivity and child responsiveness to attachment status and other desired outcomes in child development. Video Interaction Guidance (VIG) is a widely used intervention that has shown to be effective in this specific area. The theory of the method which recognizes that in every interaction there are two equally important subjects (named intersubjectivity) fits like a glove when applied to promoting sensitive parent-child attunement. The intervention was associated with improvement of adult-child relationship quality, enhanced parental sensitivity, decreased parental stress, and decreased child behavioral difficulties (e.g., Fukkink, 2008). This symposium aims at delineating how VIG works, what current knowledge exists about effects, and what tools could be ultimately used to capture intervention effects. To reach these goals, this symposium consists of three papers: 1) How does Video Interaction Guidance Promote Young Children’s Development?; 2) Video Interaction Guidance as a Method to Promote Sensitive Mother-Infant Interaction in Preventive Child Healthcare; 3) Two New Tools to Assess the Nature and Quality of Interactions: A Global Measure and a Derivative Tool for Helper-Client Interactions. The first paper introduces the audience to the intervention, summarizes the current (meta-analytic) evidence on the effectiveness of VIG, and examines mechanisms of VIG leading to its effectiveness. Qualitative interview data is discussed in the light of a small-scale study on the effect of VIG – by means of improved parent-child communication – on young children’s language development. The second paper examines VIG as a method to promote sensitive mother-child interaction in infancy, in a population with parental stress as a result of an excessively crying infant. Preliminary results of a randomized controlled trial are presented. The third and final paper examines the design of two recently developed tools for coding videotaped interactions to measure the quality and nature of interactions in any context. In addition to demonstrating these two tools, initial interrater reliability data for the instruments and initial validity data for parent-child interaction are presented. Data is included in a pilot study to test the hypothesis that the micro-behaviors and patterns included in these tools reflect a global theory of communication that will generalize to interactions in any setting and allows for paired analyses to assess the role or impact of parallel process. This symposium summarizes state-of-the-art research and knowledge regarding VIG.

S34.1
How does Video Interaction Guidance Promote Young Children’s Development?
Kennedy, H.

S34.2
Video Interaction Guidance as a Method to Promote Sensitive Mother-Infant Interaction in Dutch Preventive Child Healthcare
Klein Velderman, M., Pannebakker, F.D., de Wolff, M.S., Fukkink, R.G.