Non-European computing

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  • Using Eudora for languages other than English:


    On this site is a number of EudoraTables plugins aimed at easing the ease of echanging email in non-European as well as European languages other than English. They add to and replace the somewhat obsolete north European tables distributed with Eudora itself. The files here cover tables for several dozen languages from Icelandic to Japanese. On this site, we have packaged them into three different packages, one for Central European, Cyrillic and Greek languages; another for Middle Eastern languages and a third for Thai and East Asian (Chinese, Japanese, Korean) languages. Each file also contains enhanced tables for Western and Northern Europe.

    The plug-in tables are made in cooperation between the author of these lines and Andreas Prilop of Hannover.

    Why do I need them?

    If you only write the King's English in your email, you are in state of bliss, network-wise. All computers are based on US English (A-Z), and every one of them can communicate with every other, without any problems or special settings. However, once you venture beyond the letter "Z", you are in dark and only partially chartered waters.

    The problem isn't that you cannot write in Swedish or Japanese on your computer. You can in most cases, if you really want to. But every computer system has a different way of coaxing those Swedish or Japanese characters out on the screen (and some computers have many internally different ways). So, one computer's ä may be another computer's ø leading to all sorts of problems. This will show up when you try to send e-mail with such characters from one computer system to another.

    For this reason, characters beyond "Z" must be coded in a particular way, which both the sending and the receiving computer can recognize. It is carried out by the email program, not by the user: you should be able to install it and forget it. In Eudora, this is done by one or more small extra file called EudoraTables which you drop into the Eudora Stuff folder in your Eudora application folder. (In Eudora 4 or higher. In older versions of Eudora, you placed it in the Preferences of System folder's Eudora folder.) A standard version of this table, basically covering Scandinavia, is distributed by Eudora; we have enhanced it to cover a larger section of the globe.

    If you want to read more about why we must use these plug-ins, and how to use non-English languages in other network services, check out our "European and Non-European Languages on the Net"

    How does it work?

    The plug-in tables are installed quite easily; you download the package you want and just drop the files into a folder on your Mac. (You have to change a couple of settings, detailed below.) Then the table will either do its work automatically, if the guy who sends you mail has a properly set-up email system, or manually by choosing a table/language from a menu, if the correspondent is not properly set up. We should warn you that as of today, Mac Eudora with these tables here, is about the only way to do proper non-European email. But there are many non-proper ways, so you may expect to visit the menu often.

    There are often several options for each script or language in these menus. This is because, as mentioned, different types of computers may use different ways of handling non-European scripts. We have tried here to incorporate the most common methods used on either Macs or PCs for the various languages. Thus, even if a PC person sends you Russian email written in a character set that does not exist on a Mac, you should find an option that will 'translate' this to a text that you can read. Some of these will have strange names, if these mean nothing to you, try various options to see which gives a correct result

    Eudora does not yet 'officialy' support non-European languages. However, barring one or two cosmetic mistakes, it does work both for writing and reading most scripts. You will however have to select the font for the text yourself, to get the text in the proper script. Details on this below. Evidently, your Mac must already have the capability to display the script in question, these tables and Eudora will not install any non-European scripts for you. We assume here that you already have an Arabic, Chinese, or Japanese etc. Mac set up (while there are some European screen fonts in the appropriate files).

    What languages are covered here?

    The EudoraTables emporium, as we immodestly call it, is a site in development. Currently, the three packages mentioned cover about two dozen languages, with in all 53 different ways of using these on various types of computers. These are: (Each item above represents one plugin file). Each file covers at least the International standard way of transferring text in that script, the Mac way and the normal Windows way. Many also add other more or less used options. In some cases, bad email software on the 'other' side can corrupt a message. We have in some cases added some 'repair' tables to make such corrupted texts readable.


    There is a read-me file with every package which includes information relevant to each particular script or language. Notice that those instructions were originally written for Eudora 3, so although the general information in them is still correct, some items have been updated. Check therefore with the general installation procedure below, which contains more updated information:
    • Quit Eudora if it is open.

    • Put both the files 'Eudora Standard Tables' and Eudora [Language] Tables into the appropriate folder. These vary with the different Eudora versions.
      • In OS X, you control-click on the Eudora application icon and select "Show package content" from the pop-up menu. Then click on the "Contents" folder and then "MacOS" : "Eudora Stuff" and place the table files there (notice that there may be several folders on your machine called "Eudora Stuff", so use this method).
      • In Eudora vs. 4 and 5 under OS 9 or older, you put the tables in the folder called "Eudora Stuff" which is in the same folder as your Eudora application.
      • In Eudora 3, you have to put them in the System folder, either in the folder called "Eudora" or in the general preferences folder.
      • In Eudora 1 and 2, you must use the Preferences folder in the System folder.
      You can add as many different Tables files as you like. (If there is an old EudoraTables file there already, however, throw it out.)

    • Start Eudora and choose the menu "Special : Settings...". Under "Sending Mail", uncheck (i.e. disable) the option "Fix curly quotes".
      This is a utility in Eudora that clears out unwanted characters, like 'curly quotes'. Unfortunately, it is calculated on English fonts, so will also remove real non-European characters. This is important when sending mail in non-European scripts, but does not concern receiving them.

    • If you except to use a non-European script most or all of the time, you can make it the default font of Eudora. Go to "Fonts & Display" in the Settings menu, and choose a font in the script (language) you expect to use most often as screen font. However, if you mostly use English or a European langauge, you need not bother with this.

    • The various conversion options installed will appear under the menu "Message : Change : Transliteration".
      This is true of Eudora 3 and higher. If you see the menu "Change", but not any "Transliteration, that means the tables were not installed correctly. Check their location again. In ancient Eudora 2, there was no Change menu. Instead, the tables appear in the "Priority" pop-up (where it says "Normal"). "Settings" was then called "Configuration".

    • Set which conversion that you use most often (separately for incoming and outgoing mail) as default. For Western users, that should be "ISO Latin 1". To set it, open an old message you have sent, then hold down the Shift key while you select MacRoman->ISO-Latin1 from the transliteration menu. You must do the same for incoming messages; open an old message you have received, and choose "ISO-Latin1->Mac" with the Shift key down. You will see the default choice outlined in the menu.
      If you ever want to remove these tables, deselect the default conversions first: Hold down the shift key and select once more. Otherwise, Eudora may misbehave afterwards.
    How well the text is received varies with the program that sends it. Mostly you have no control over this, but you can in some cases correct any errors:

    Today, many programs sends text as HTML. If it has been properly coded -- if the sending program has labelled the text correctly -- then Eudora will most often display the text in the appropriate script and font, without you having to do anything (however, Arabic and Hebrew users: note that the words sometimes appears "backwards", when the spaces between the words have been marked as "English text". Arabic periods, colons and numerals will also mostly cause sentences parts to come in a left-to-right order on each line, since Eudora is actually a left-right program.)

    If the text does not appear in the correct font and you see it as "boxes and symbols" instead, you must select a font for it. Eudora does not allow this unless you specifically ask for it. So, click on the "pencil" icon ("allow editing") on top of the message, select the text that looks strange and choose a font in the correct script from the menu "Edit : Text : Font".

    If the text still does not look correct, they are in the right script but make no sense, it has probably not been "transcribed" correctly. The tables will do it automatically if the message has been correctly labelled, but often e.g. Russian messages are marked as "US English". You must in those cases choose the correct script manually: Choose whatever you assume to be correct from the Change : Transliteration menu, and see. Sometimes you have to try several options before you get the right one, but the one that says "Windows" in some form is most often the culprit.
    However, sometimes none will get it right, particularly if a message has been forwarded several times or passed through a mailing list. Then a mis-converted message may have been mis-coverted again and again, making a mess that cannot be resolved. However, we have included some "Repair" tables to try to help. If nothing works, try to choose these, save and close and try a real table afterwards. But that is a last resort, the message may simply get further entangled. Otherwise, you should not save your message before you have got the correct transliteration, as that may be un-correctable.

    In Eudora 3, you may have to enable "Styled Text" to be allowed to edit and thus select a font for the received text. This is under the Settings menu. Turn it on, and then choose the font.

    Eudora 1 and 2, as well as 3 light, does not allow multiple fonts / scripts at all in a received message. To read the text, you must either make the non-European script default, mostly not adviceable here, or copy and paste into a processor that can handle this script. -- Very old stuff: The Eudora tables will work with any kind of Eudora, from vs. 1, but the automatic conversions require System 7 / vs. 1.4 or higher; for older stuff, you must choose incoming conversions manually. They also have no "fix curly" option to worry about.

    One disputed issue is what to choose under "Special : Settings : Sending mail", whether "May Use Quoted-printable" should be on or off. There is no absolutely correct answer here; my colleague argues for "Off" in some of the Readmes here, I personally think it may be better to have "On" as a first choice (because this will always work with other Eudora users, at least). See my Non-European networks file for what this actually means.

    (August, 2002).


    Below is more information about each file and script, what conversions it is able to do, and what "charset name" the table puts on the email messages going out. The last is important for users of other systems, as automatic conversion is based on this name. (See at the end for more detail)


    Cyrillic, Central European and Greek Eudora tables

    Download (260K).

    All tables in this package were made by Andreas Prilop. This file also contains some screen fonts and system resources, sufficient for you read and write email messages in the various scripts.


    The Cyrillic file contains six tables, for mail from Macs, Windows, two ISO (International) standards and two IBM Code pages.

    MacCyrillic<->ISO-8859-5. This is a table that transcodes from the Mac Cyrillic system to the ISO 8859-5 standard. This part of 8859 is not as universally used on the Net as e.g. 8859-1 or 8859-8 for their scripts, but you still find it. The message is marked "iso-8859-5".

    MacCyrillic. This table is best used only to other Mac users (with Cyrillic). It does not transcode anything, so all characters, including those not existent in 8859-5, will survive. The message is marked "x-mac-cyrillic".

    MacCyrillic<->ISO-IR-111/KOI8. This table converts to what is actually the most common standard for Russian/Cyrillic text on the Net, normally known as "koi-8". As the full name indicates, it is also recognized by ISO as a standard, although it does not form part of the 8859 setup. Often this may be your first choice for Cyrllic email; depending on your correpsondence.
    Notice there is also a "koiR" table in the old EudoraTables file distributed by Qualcomm. This is however, not complete, in that it covers only Russian, not the other Cyrillic languages.
    The message is marked "iso-ir-111"

    MacCyrillic<->Windows-1251. This table transcodes to and from WinCyrillic, the version used by Windows Cyrillic system (i.e. Code Page 1251). The message is marked "windows-1251"

    MacCyrillic<->IBM855. There are two older Cyrillic code pages made for IBM / DOS machines, named Code Page 855 and 866. Although these are not likely to be much used in email, you may come across them, so we have provided transcoding tables for both. This code page covers all Cyrillic languages. The message is marked "ibm855"

    MacCyrillic<->IBM866 - The other of the two IBM code Pages for Cyrillic, 866. This covers Belarussian, Russian and Ukrainian languages. The message is marked "ibm866"

    In addition, we have added two "repair tables". If a Windows or even a Mac email program isn't correctly set up, it may cause your Eudora to treat Cyrillic as French or German. This means that Eudora will mess up the text. We have added these two variants of the WinCyrillic and ISO 8859-5 tables, which is meant for such messed-up files (they do a "double conversion", from the corrupted text to the original Windows/ISO, then from this to MacCyrillic, in one go). These two are marked by a star (*).

    Central European

    There are two Central Europan files, because the Mac has a separate solution for Romanian. Thus, there is a separate Romanian file for that language, and a CE Europe that covers all the rest. You should install either one or the other, not both. The CE file contains seven tables, for mail from Macs, two kinds of Windows, two ISO (International) standards and two IBM Code pages.

    The two ISO 8859 parts and the two Windows tabels cover different languages: One covers the Baltic languages, the other all the others. The Mac CE system includes both the Baltic and the others.

    MacCE<->ISO-8859-2/Latin-2. This is a table that transcodes from the Mac CE system to the ISO 8859-2 standard. To be used for languages from Polish to Croatian. The message is marked "iso-8859-2".

    MacCE<->ISO-8859-13/Baltic. This is a table that transcodes from the Mac CE system to the ISO 8859-13 standard. To be used for the Baltic languages (Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian) as well as Polish. The message is marked "iso-8859-13".

    MacCE. This table is best used only to other Mac users (with Central European fonts). It does not transcode anything, so all characters, including those not existent in 8859-x, will survive. The message is marked "x-mac-ce".

    MacCE<->Windows-1250/Latin-2. This table transcodes to and from Central Europan Windows (i.e. Code Page 1250, or 'Windows Latin 2'). It covers basically the same languages as 8859-2. The message is marked "windows-1250"

    MacCE<->Windows-1257/Baltic. This table transcodes to and from Baltic Windows (i.e. Code Page 1257). It convers basically the same languages as 8859-13. The message is marked "windows-1257"

    MacCE<->IBM852/Latin-2. This is for mail from an older Central European code page made for IBM / DOS machines, named Code Page 852. Although these are not likely to be much used in email, you may come across them, so we have provided transcoding tables for both. The message is marked "ibm852"

    MacCE<->IBM775/Baltic. This is for mail from another, Baltic code page IBM / DOS machines, Code Page 775. The message is marked "ibm775"

    In addition, there are three "repair tables" also for this package (see above, under Cyrillic, and "Repair Latin1, below). They are for two variants of Windows and ISO 8859-2 tables. The repair tables are marked by a star (*).


    This file, then is only to be used for Romanian (and Albanian). Do not use this as well as the Central Europe file, as they will conflict with each other - both translate from the Latin-2 network and Windows standards. The Romanian file contains four tables, for mail from Macs, Windows, the ISO (International) standard and an IBM Code page.

    MacRomanian<->ISO-8859-2. This is a table that transcodes from the Mac Romanian system to the ISO 8859-2 (Latin 2) standard. The message is marked "iso-8859-2".

    MacRomanian. This table is best used only to other Mac users (with Romanian fonts). It does not transcode anything, so all characters, including those not existent in 8859-x, will survive. The message is marked "x-mac-romanian".

    MacRomanian<->Windows-1250. This table transcodes to and from Central Europan Windows (i.e. Code Page 1250, or 'Windows Latin 2'). The message is marked "windows-1250"

    MacRomanian<->IBM852/Latin-2. This is for mail from an older Central European code page made for IBM / DOS machines, named Code Page 852. Although it is not likely to be much used in email, you may come across it, so we have provided a transcoding table for it. The message is marked "ibm852"

    In addition, there are two "repair tables" also for this package (see above, under Cyrillic, and "Repair Latin1, below). They are for the Windows and ISO 8859-2 tables. The repair tables are marked by a star (*).


    The Greek file contains five tables for mail from Macs, Windows, the ISO (International) standard and two IBM Code pages.

    MacGreek<->ISO-8859-7. This is a table that transcodes from the Mac Greek system to the ISO 8859-7 standard (also called 'ELOT 928'). The message is marked "iso-8859-7".

    MacGreek. This table is best used only to other Mac users (with Greek fonts). It does not transcode anything, so all characters, including those not existent in 8859-x, will survive. The message is marked "x-mac-greek".

    MacGreek<->Windows-1253. This table transcodes to and from Greek Windows (i.e. Code Page 1253). The message is marked "windows-1253"

    MacGreek<->IBM737. This is for mail from an older Greek code page made for IBM / DOS machines, named Code Page 737. Although it is not likely to be much used in email, you may come across it, so we have provided a transcoding table for it. The message is marked "ibm737"

    MacGreek<->IBM869. This is for mail from another Greek code page made for IBM / DOS and OS/2 machines, named Code Page 869. The message is marked "ibm869"

    In addition, there are two "repair tables" also for this package (see above, under Cyrillic, and "Repair Latin1, below). They are for the Windows and ISO 8859-7 tables. The repair tables are marked by a star (*).


    Middle Eastern Eudora tables

    Download (86K).


    The Arabic file contains seven tables, for mail from Macs, Arabic Windows, the ISO (International) standard and the slightly variant ASMO 708/DOS, and the older ASMO 449 standard and IBM's Code Page 449.

    MacArabic<->ISO Arabic. This is a table I have made that transcodes from the Mac Arabic system to the ISO standard, 8859-6. The two are basically identical on the Arabic side, but there are a few differences concerning accented European characters outside the Arabic. Thus, this table transcodes as follows:

  • Going out, Mac European characters are transcoded to nearest similar ISO character shape (é to e etc.).
  • Arabic space (does not exist in 8859-6) is transcoded to normal space
  • Arabic numerals are transcoded to Roman ones (ISO does not have separate Arabic numerals as the Mac does).
  • Other Arabic characters are not transcoded
  • Mac Persian and Urdu characters are changed to similar Arabic ones (p->b etc.), since 8859-6 does not cover Persian or Urdu.
  • Coming in, the region between US and Arabic characters ($80-9F) is transcoded the same way as in the Latin 1>Mac table; the remaining are not transcoded. The message is marked "iso-8859-6".

    MacArabic. This table is best used only to other Mac users (with Arabic). It does not transcode anything, so all characters, including those not existent in 8859-6, will survive. The Arabic will arrive correctly also to other computers, but any non-Arabic, non-English will be mangled. The message is marked "x-Mac-Arabic".

    MacArabic<->ASMO-708. ASMO 708 is a variant of ISO 8859-6, created by the Arabic Standards and Meterology organization (and here in an extraction used by IBM/DOS). Like Mac Arabic, it follows 8859-6 in the Arabic characters, but fills the spaces left open in the ISO set with European characters and graphical elements, all according to an old DOS "code page", and is thus mostly suited to PCs. Like 8859-6 it does not have a separate set of Arabic numerals and punctuation.
    This table is different from the"ISO Arabic" table in that it converts these European accented characters to their Mac equivalents, while the graphical characters are deleted (changed to space). ASMO 708 also has separate characters for vowel/shadda combinations, which the Mac keeps separate. These are converted to shaddas. The message is marked "ASMO-708".

    MacArabic<->ASMO-449. ASMO 449 is an older character code for Arabic, based on 7-bit-transmission, unlike the other here who are 8-bits. It is sometimes useful when sending through mailers that cannot handle 8-bit character sets.

  • However, it also creates a problem. As a 7-bit-code, ASMO 449 is all-Arabic with no European characters allowed. So, on receiving a 449 message, Eudora will transcode everything, including the mail headers (From:, Subject:, Date:) etc., making them unreadable. This is an unfortunate and unavoidable side-effect. To compensate for it, I have added a separate table, "ASMO repair", which reverses the effect of the 449 table and makes English readable, but Arabic unreadable.
    This allows the user to play around with the message, e.g. selecting "ASMO repair" manually from the menu when she wants to see who the message is from, and deselecting it when she wants to read the text of the message.
    Like ISO 8859-6, the outgoing 449 table changes Mac Persian and Urdu characters to similar Arabic ones. The message is marked "ASMO-449".

    MacArabic<->WinArabic. This table transcodes to and from Arabic Windows (they call it "code page 1256"). Strictly speaking, Arabic Windows encoding should not be used on the net, as it is not a recognized standard (unlike 8859-6), but since there are Windows users out there who not unlikely will be mailing Arabic texts in their own system, it is probably useful to be prepared. Thus, I have included this table. It works basically the same as the 8859-6 table above; European characters that exist on the other side are transcoded, those that do not are changed to the nearest equivalent. Arabic text should survive unscathed. Also my creation. Messages are marked "Windows-1256".

    MacArabic<->CP 864. This table transodes from (and to) Arabic DOS, the so-called Code Page 864. Such exchange cannot be complete, since CP 864 - unlike all other systems mentioned here - encode the character shapes, not character values. Incoming mail will be presented correctly, only the laa shape - one character in CP 864 - cannot be fully transcoded and is represented as "*". Outgoing, most Mac Arabic characters are transcoded to the medial shapes for the DOS side, as this may give the most readable result. CP 864 does not have short vowels, so they are transcoded to tatwils. On the whole, however, Arabic DOS is best avoided in email exchange. Messages are marked "ibm864".


    Persian does not have an international standard. The only table here, part of the Arabic file, converts from a national Iranian network standard.

    MacPersian<->ISIRI Persian. As Persian is not included into the ISO 8859-6 standard, this table instead transcodes to the common Persian ISIRI 3342 code. The standard, while quite different from the ISO one, covers the same characters as Mac Arabic, except for Persian 'k' (not on the Mac), which is mapped to normal 'k'. Some punctuation is also different, and the Mac Urdu characters are mapped to their non-diacritic base forms. If you are sending to another Mac with Arabic, you may also choose "Mac Arabic", as this also preserves the Persian characters (but only to another Mac). The message is marked "isiri-3342".


    The Hebrew file contains four tables, for mail from Macs, Hebrew Windows, the ISO (International) standard and older IBM systems.

    MacHebrew<->ISO Hebrew. This is a table made by me that transcodes from the Mac Hebrew system to the ISO standard, 8859-8. The Mac Hebrew code is built on the ISO standard, so the consonants need no conversion. However, ISO Hebrew is more restricted that the Mac Hebrew system: Only consonants are coded. There is no standard for vowels / diacritics. Thus, this table uses these principles:

  • Going out, Mac European characters are transcoded to nearest similar ISO character shape (é to e etc.).
  • Hebrew numerals, symbols are transcoded to Roman numerals
  • Short vowels (diacritics) are replaced with spaces
  • Consonant + diacritic (sh etc.) are replaced with consonants only
  • Other Hebrew characters are not transcoded
  • Coming in, the region between US and Hebrew characters ($80-BF) is transcoded the same way as in the Latin 1>Mac table; the remaining are not transcoded.
    Notice that vowels/diacritics will appear as spaces inside words; thus they are better left out of the original text. The message is marked "iso-8859-8".

    MacHebrew. This table is best used only to other Mac users (with Hebrew). It does not transcode anything, so all characters, including those not existent in 8859-8, will survive. Hebrew, consonant-only text will arrive correctly also to other computers, but other characters may be mangled. The message is marked "x-Mac-Hebrew".

    MacHebrew<->Hebrew IBM. This is an old Hebrew standard for DOS computers, and part of Qualcomm's standard package. I understand that many computers that use this standard also use "visual representation", which means that the Hebrew letters are reversed line by line, to appear "correctly" on systems that don't support right-left typing; this is apparently still common in Israel. If you have correspondents in this situation, you may be interested in a package provided by Doug Shivers which includes Eudora and a set of tools for Hebrew email without the Hebrew system.
    The table marks messages: "x-HebIBM".


    The Turkish file contains four tables, for mail from Macs, Windows, the ISO (International) standard and the older IBM Code Page 857.

    MacTurkish <-> ISO-8859-9 translates between the special Turkish system and fonts made by Apple and the most commonly used ISO standard for Turkish, 8859-9 (there are several ISO variants that can be used with Turkish, but this should be first choice for Turkish email.) The message is marked "iso-8859-9".

    MacTurkish is for Turkish mail with other Mac users. Also signs outside the 8859-9 set will be preserved. Not to be used to other systems. The message is marked "x-mac-turkish".

    MacTurkish <-> Win-1254 translates to the Windows system for Turkish. The message is marked "windows-1254".

    MacTurkish <-> DOS-857 translates to the older DOS CodePage 857, for Turkish. Like the other DOS systems, it shouldn't really be used in email but may occur, so this choice is inclued. The message is marked "ibm857".

    These Turkish tables were created by Andreas Prilop. With the file follows some Turkish screen fonts and a keyboard layout, so that one may read Turkish email even if Turkish is not already installed on the machine. It also has a "repair table" (see Cyrillic, above) for the Windows table, marked (*).


    East and South East Asian Eudora tables

    Download (116K).


    The Thai file is the only one in the E/SE Asian package that actually converts anything, in the same way as the other packages. It contains three tables, for mail from Macs, the ISO (International) standard and the older IBM Code Page 874.

    MacThai <-> ISO-8859-11 translates between the Mac Thai system and the ISO standard for that part of the world, 8859 part 11. This should be your first choice for Thai. The message is marked "iso-8859-11".

    MacThai does no conversion, and is to be used only to other Mac users who have Thai installed. The message is marked "x-mac-thai".

    MacThai <-> IBM874 translates to an older DOS code page, 874, for Thai, which may be found in use by mailers who does not know any better. The message is marked "ibm874".

    The Thai tables were also created by Andreas Prilop.

    Chinese, Japanese & Korean

    The Chinese and Korean files don't actually do anything to the email message. This is because for these double-byte scripts, the Mac already supports the same standards that are used on the network. Thus, whether the email message is in Simplified or Traditional Chinese, the Mac user will be able to display it by choosing the appropriate Chinese font on his Mac. However, if a Chinese message is incorrectly sent out (has an incorrect 'charset' name), it may become corrupted before reaching the recipient. Therefore it is useful still to install and use these tables for Chinese or Korean email messages, at least for those going out.

    Chinese, Korean and Japanese is combined into one file, with these four tables:

    Simplified Chinese. This marks the message as "gb2312".

    Traditional Chinese. This marks the message as "big5". The names refer to two common character standards for Chinese.

    Korean. This marks the message as "euc-kr".

    Japanese. This marks the message as "shift_jis".
    Like the Chinese and Korean ones, the Japanese table is an "identity table" that only sets the name of the message. However, unlike the two other scripts, Mac Japanese is not the same as the network standard. On the Net, an older adaptation called 'Shift-JIS' is used. This is different from all other types of non-European scripts here, and the particular adaptation for proper Japanese cannot be made by EudoraTables alone; another external tool is required to distinguish between English and Japanese text. We have here included one such tool, created by John Delacour, and which requires that the user has AppleScript installed. You will find it with John's description of it in the EastAsian Tables folder.
    Another option is to use a utility like MacProxy, which you can download from its site. It works fine together with our Japanese table (except, we understand, with some authetication utilities). A third option is a $10 shareware plugin to Eudora, "Mac Kanji Conversion Plugin" made by Tim Burress, which you can download from here. We have not tested this together with our Japanese table, but it seems to be a complete alternative, so you may not need both. Each of these solutions may fit various users. There is also an older, completely Japanized version of Eudora.

    West European tables

    Download (28K).

    These, the standard and North European ("Other European") tables are included in all the other files, as they may be used in conjunction with them. Clearly, if you install more than one set of EudoraTables, you do not nedd more than one copy of the Standard tables. But you do need at least one, if you have any Eudora Table file at all installed in your Eudora or Preferences folder. If you want just the European tables, download any of the files and throw away what you don't want, or download just the North Europe table.

    Eudora Standard Tables

    These tables are standard and must be installed together with any other script table, as email exchange in European languages may otherwise be hampered or impossible. They contain three tables, for mail from the ISO (International) standard and IBM's "International" code page, and one for restricted 7bit-communication.

    MacRoman<->ISO Latin 1 is the same as the old "Mac->ISO". There are many ISO codes here now, Latin 1 is the official standard for exchange in West European languages, and if you don't have any EudoraTables installed, everything beyond z is put into Latin 1. However, with EudoraTables' extended choice, you must select "ISO Latin 1" from the menu if that is what you want. From Qualcomm, marked "iso-8859-1".

    The standard ISO Latin 1 table also converts to and from Icelandic, if you have one of Apple's standard Icelandic fonts installed.

    MacRoman <-> IBM850 for exchange with the older MS-DOS or OS/2 "international" code pages. One should not normally see such mail, as CP 850 is not common in email, but one sometimes does from strange mailers, so it is useful to have.

    MacRoman -> US-ASCII is for sending mail in 7-bit ASCII. It strips all extended characters, removing accents and symbols. From Qualcomm, it is mostly useful if you want to be sure you don't use any other language than English in the mail.

    Repair ISO-Latin-1 isn't actually a table that is to be used for sending e-mail. However, very often we receive messages which have been damaged by incorrect settings on the sender's side.

    In particular, it is common that a PC or Unix user sends non-European text from a MIME program but does not mark the message with its real contents (often because the PC mail programs does not allow this). Thus, the message is either marked as "iso-8859-1". In such cases (and some others), Eudora will believe that the text is West European language, and will transcode accordingly. If the text actually is Arabic or Chinese, this makes a mess of it, and the damage is permanent (MIME transcoding is saved to disk). For this reason, I have added this table that reverses the ISO 8859-1 transcoding, returning the message to what it was originally. This error is not your or Eudora's fault, but the one who sent the message, do inform him or her about it. (See here for more about MIME and the correct setup for non-european mail. An external way of doing the same corrections for Arabic on a text file is here.)

    The conversion done by these tables may either be alternative or cumulative. Normally they are alternative: If you choose one table from the "Transliteration" menu, sees that this doesn't work and tries another, the first one is undone - i.e. if the first table you try will change an X to a Y, trying a second will revert the Y back to X before applying the new conversion. Thus, whatever order you try the tables in is irrelevant, they will always convert the original version of the text. There are two exceptions to this: Automatic conversion on the basis of the message's 'charset header' is permanent and written to disk at once. Also, if you manually save the message to disk (in Eudora 3 only) while a conversion is active, the converted text is saved replacing the original one.

    This has both a positive and a negative side - if you by mistake save a text before you have found the correct table for it, you may lose the original and be left with a mess. On the other hand, if a message is already horribly confused - and you know how - you can by saving do 'cumulative' repairs, much the same way as the repair tables do automatically for selected tables, to arrive at the correct text. E.g. if a DOS Code Page X message was converted as a Latin-1 because of an erronous header, you can first use the "Repair Latin 1" table, save, and then the Code Page X -> Mac table.

    North European

    This file, in a separate folder in all packages, contain five Scandinavian and German tables:

    MacRoman<->German. These four tables all transcode from the old so-called 'national 7bit' character sets for the four languages. Not used much more, and not usable outside their native region, they were rather common a few years ago. The three first are the same tables as you find in Qualcomm's standard "EudoraTables", only with new names. They mark them with their official names, respectively "DS_2089", "NS_4551-1", "SEN_850200_B", and "DIN_66003".

    MacSámi<->Sámi. This table converts from a new standard proposed by the Sámi Council (submitted to ISO for acceptance as an ISO 8859 standard) to a commonly used Mac font system for the Sami language of the Northern Cape. It marks the message as "x-saami".

    Windows Latin 1 Table

    This file contains only one table, which converts from normal Windows Latin 1 to Mac. This is necessary for normal text; Windows uses normal iso-8859-1, which the standard (and built-in) converter will take. But it adds a few graphical elements, such as "smart quotes", bullets, etc. This table converts these elements to their Mac equivalents; at the cost of supporting for Icelandic, the two conversions conflict. As it is incompatible with the standard Mac 8859-1 table, I would advice caution in using this table, ahd have thus put it in a separate. The messages are marked as "windows-1252".

    What do you mean by "marked as"?

    The average user does not have to worry about this, the "marks" or "charset names" we have indicated above is never visible to him. It is however important to those who want to adapt other email systems to conform to non-European mail. The "character set name" is added at the top of each message that is sent out from Eudora. Humans will not see it, but the email program that receives the mail may use this information to act upon the message. Thus, the tables here use such names both to inform the recipient of the message we send out, and to automatically convert a message coming in to the Macintosh script involved.

    The system of adding such headers is called MIME, and only email programs that support this system can use it. Unfortunately, while some other email programs do have the possibilty to set correct headers for non-European mail, none does so with the ease of Eudora, so it will be quite common for people who are able to write Russian or Arabic still to send you messages that are incorrectly marked. Hence, the need for manual choice of 'transliteration' tables.

    There is a list of "offical" names for the various character sets used on different platforms, and these Eudora tables conform to that. On messages going out, we use most common standard names - the ones listed above, and we will in addition recognize a number of alternative name forms for automatic conversion (thus, while "windows-1251" is the official name for that set, a message marked "x-Arabic-Windows", "x-cp-1256", "cp-1256", "cp1256" or just "1256" will also be converted automatically). Some, which are not yet officially registered (thus, strangely, the Mac character set names), are prefaced with an x-, meaning they are idiosyncratic. For these it is up to the users / developers to come to an agreement.

    See the European and Non-European languages on the Net page for further discussion of this.

    Can we actually write non-European languages in EudoraLite or Pro?

    Officially, the Eudora developers does not claim to support non-European languages yet, although they say it is close at hand. However, in practical terms both recent and older versions of Eudora handle most non-European scripts with ease (with some reservations about input methods for East Asian scripts). Some details may be wrong, the cursor keys go the wrong way and font size aren't always exactly as expected, but most of the time you can operate acceptably. There is, however, some differences between the older Eudora versions, the freeware EudoraLite 1.5 (and older) and the commercial Eudora Pro 2, as against the new Eudora 3 (both freeware and commercial).

    The older Eudora 1/2 could not display more than one font in the program at all. Thus, the font you set in the Settings (Configuration) box turned up everywhere. If you wanted to show non-European text in Eudora itself, you would have to do the following:

    • Install the appropriate EudoraTables file (of course)
    • Open Special: Settings: Fonts and choose a font in your script
    • For Hebrew and Arabic, open the Text control panel and choose: "Right to left". This will change all text alignment (including of English text!) to right. English text would still appear, but not other European languages.
    If you did not want to set up Eudora with a non-European font, you could copy what appeared to be garbage email from the Eudora window, and paste it into a word processor or text editor that supported your script (or, use Eudora's Save As and open the resulting text file within the text editor); select what appeared as nonsense and choose the non-European font for it, and there have your text. Sending worked the same way, writing the text in another, script-capable text program, and paste into Eudora's message window. It would still arrive safely and correctly if your table was set to the correct script - even if all you'd see in Eudora was meaningless symbols.

    Eudora 3.0 and non-European scripts

    In Eudora 3.0, which now also exists in a freeware version (EudoraLite 3.0.1), this has become rather more convient, because it now allows you to use several fonts in the same message. This means for us that you can have both English / European in your normal Eudora font, and still be able to select a non-European text and choose the correct font (and changing alignment of the paragraph if so desired for Hebrew and Arabic) for it, whether it is text you have written yourself or text which has been sent to you.

    You must however make sure to set the Special: Settings: Styled Text (the very last item) to "Send style information with mail", otherwise the "Edit: Text" menu - where you can access the fonts - is dimmed. This is a bit unfortunate, because it links something we want - access to our fonts - with something we do not want: "style information with mail". Eudora now allows you to add codes in the text saying which font, size, colour etc. the text was written in. While this sounds like a marvellous idea, in fact only Eudora 3.0 owners can benefit from it. All others will just see this as junk codes in their email text. So, while we need to keep the "Send style" option on, we strongly recommend to also turn on "But warn me first", and when so warned in messages where you have several fonts, always click on the "Remove styles" option when sending. Unless your are certain the other party also has Eudora 3.0.

    (Notice that if you choose a non-Roman default font, it will always display in 12 pt, no matter what size you choose. This minor bug does not affect the size you choose for any text in the "Text" menu.)

    My co-developer Andreas Prilop has also released the tables he made on the Info-mac archives, where you will find them in the Internet mail folder. I have updated his readme files and packaged them slightly differently for this "Eudora Emporium"; the actual EudoraTables files for "his" languages are however the same here as on Info-mac.


    NewsWatcher and non-Roman

    Eudora is not the only program that uses "Tables" files such as these. Other programs for the Net use similar ones, including UseNet news readers. It may not be very common yet to use Arabic or Hebrew on Usenet, but it can now be done. I have converted some of the Middle Eastern tables from Eudora to the only Mac news browser that can use them, the program "Yet Another NewsWatcher" (which you can find on most shareware archives). YA-NW already comes with tables for East European, East Asian as well as Turkish languages, in my package (click icon above to download) you will also find tables for the most common Arabic, Hebrew and Persian character sets (ISO 8859-8 and 8859-6, Arabic Windows and ISIRI-3342). There are also the Sami and IBM 850 European tables mentioned above. The ReadMe contains installation instructions; mainly, you just drop the desired file into the YA-Newswatcher Tables folder that the program has created.
    See also the "Arabic Mac and the Internet" overview on how to use Arabic in the various network programs.

    Knut S. Vikør

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